TIMELINE - PART 2
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King Charles I of Britain dies of old age, and possibly the shock of the British defeat in the Second Anglo-Dutch War as well as the problems of the Fourth Civil War, and is succeeded by his son, who becomes King Charles II.
The very bright comet Hevelius is seen in the skies.
With a new King on the throne, the British army moves decisively against the rebels, pushing them back on all fronts.
King Louis XIV founds the French Academy of Sciences.
The Fourth Civil War ends with the defeat of the rebels. The enforced 'reforms' of the Church of England move into high gear in both England and Scotland, driving even more Protestants into exile, either in the Netherlands or in the New World. The King encourages this emigration of malcontents.
An earthquake at Shemakha, in the Caucasus, kills about eight thousand people.
John Milton publishes his epic 'Paradise Lost' in Boston. It serves as a rallying point for the Puritan cause. [It is not the same as the version published in the real world in 1667, being somewhat inspired by different things, and with a definite subtext of, by way of allegory, looking back regretfully at Puritan England, that causes it to become the rallying point that it does.]
Sweden and the Netherlands sign an alliance against France.
The bright comet Gottignies appears for several weeks.
France demands that Spanish territory in the Netherlands should 'devolve' to the French King. When this is rejected by the Spanish what becomes known as the War of Devolution begins. France fights both Spain and the Dutch-Swedish Alliance. Ending the war with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Spain cedes Lille to France, who return the Franche-Comté to Spain. [This occurs a year later than in the real world.]
Spain joins Sweden and the Netherlands in an anti-French alliance that becomes known as the Triple Alliance.
Famine in Bengal kills three million people.
The Hanseatic League, formed in the twelfth century, holds its final meeting.
After continued emigration begins to de-populate parts of England and Ireland the King reverses his policy of encouraging emigration and instead introduces strict laws against emigration without permission. This slows the flood, but does not stop it, and leads to the creation of 'Freedom Smugglers', who secretly transport people out of England. [This de-population of Britain after the Restoration further hinders the development of Britain as a power.]
China recognises the Portuguese colony of Macau.
Cossak Stenka Razin leads an uprising and marches into Russia to deliver freedom to the poor.
The Dutch settlement of Cape Town begins to expand into a colony.
The peasant army of Stenka Razin is broken by the army of the Tsar, and Stenka Razin himself is captured. Taken back to Moscow, he is brutally executed, but nonetheless becomes a martyr for the poor.
John Milton publishes his second epic, 'Paradise Regained', in Boston. Like its predecessor it also serves as a rallying point for the Puritan cause. [For the same reasons as did Paradise Lost, although in this case looking forward in allegory to the day when Puritanism finally triumphs.]
Leibniz invents the calculus. [Newton's work on this remains unpublished, and so is basically lost.]
France, Münster and Cologne, who have all signed alliances against the Netherlands, declare war on it and invade in what becomes known as the First Franco-Dutch war. Britain, preoccupied with problems at home, does not participate, against the wishes of the French. [Unlike the case in the real world, where this all happened in 1672. The lack of British participation makes the war rather less bad than it was in the real world.]
Willem III, Prince of Orange, becomes Stadtholder in the Netherlands, as well as Captain-General of the Dutch forces. [In the real world this happened in 1672.]
The Dutch are forced to flood some areas of their own country to keep the invaders out. [Not as much as they had to in the real world, however.]
The Netherlands ally with the Spanish against France.
[The Royal Greenwich Observatory is not founded in this year, or indeed ever, because of the continuing British crises of unrest and lack of finance.]
Tsar Aleksey I of Russia, the second of the Romanov dynasty, dies of old age and is succeeded by his son, who becomes Tsar Feodor III.
With the aid of other German nations and the Spanish, the Dutch succeed in fighting back against the forces of France, Cologne and Münster, and force a peace treaty, ending the First Franco-Dutch War. The Netherlands are recognised by all three invaders and its previous borders guaranteed. [In the real world peace occurred with Cologne and Münster in 1674 and France in 1678, but the Dutch being less pressed here they are able to force an earlier end to the war, with less damage to their own country.]
Danish astronomer Ole Rømer makes the first measurement of the speed of light.
What becomes known as the Great Comet appears in the skies over Europe.
Baruch Spinoza, Dutch philosopher, dies.
With anti-Protestant feeling in France high, the Edict of Nantes, signed in 1598, is revoked, removing various religious freedoms from the Protestant Huguenots. Half a million emigrate from France, many to the Netherlands or to Cape Colony. Others move to Protestant Switzerland where, despite their persecution in France, they continue to be bankers to the French throne. [This happened in 1685 in the real world.]
French physicist Denis Papin, working in London with Robert Boyle, invents the first pressure cooker and develops the basic design for the steam engine. [This happened in 1679 in the real world.]
The extremely bright comet Kirch is seen.
In the New World, there is religious conflict between British Protestant and Catholic settlers.
The last Dodo is killed on the island of Mauritius.
Tsar Feodor III of Russia dies of old age and is succeeded by his younger brothers (one from each of his father Aleksey I's wives), who, ruling jointly, become Tsars Ivan V (aged 16) and Peter I (aged 10). However, their older sister Sophia (aged 25) holds the reins of power as Regent.
The French explore and claim the Louisiana Territory.
A bright comet appears. [This is what, in the real world, would be called 'Halley's Comet' however, Edmund Halley is never born, due to the effects of the changed Civil Wars.]
The Turks lay siege to Vienna. Their defeat ends the Turkish pressure on Europe.
King Louis XIV of France passes the 'Code Noir', allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. [In the real world this happened in 1689.]
The Second Great Turkish War occurs.
Austria, Poland and Venice form the Holy Alliance against the Ottomans.
England has its coldest winter in living memory, with the Thames and the sea as far as two miles out from shore freezing over.
Russia joins the Holy Alliance.
London has its last severe outbreak of the Black Death. Two-thirds of Londoners leave the city, but despite this nearly seventy thousand people die. Rumours that Syphilis wards off the Plague cause many Londoners to frequent brothels during this time. [In the real world the last severe instance of the Plague was in 1665.]
Hungary is liberated from the Turks.
King Charles II of Britain dies of old age, and is succeeded by his brother, the Duke of York, who becomes King James II.
The Parthenon in Athens is partially destroyed by an explosion of the gunpowder stored in it during an armed conflict between Venetian and Ottoman forces as part of the War of the Holy League.
Tsar Peter (now aged 17) and his supporters force the Regent Sophia to resign and enter a convent. Co-Tsars Peter and Ivan then amicably share the Russian throne.
Tensions between the British colonies in the New World and the Crown build to an intolerable level, mainly over the increasingly forcible attempts to 'reform' the Church of England in the New World. The American colonies rise up and attempt to throw off British control. [By now the population there is much larger than at the same time in the real world, and is also more oppressed.]
The New Commonwealth of the Americas (quickly shorted to the New Commonwealth, or just the Commonwealth) is announced with its capital in the city of Boston, Massachusetts.
British forces move to quell the revolt, and matters soon bog down into guerrilla war. To the rebels this is the War of Holy Liberation. To those on the other side it becomes known as the American War.
The French begin to assist the British. Even so, the Puritans have the home-ground advantage, and greatly outnumber the ten thousand French colonists in Canada. The Dutch provide covert assistance to the New Commonwealth but otherwise stay out of the war.
[France would like to have revenge of the Dutch, but has insufficient money, and is tied up in the conflict in the New World and with assisting the British crown.]
An earthquake destroys the city of Port Royal in Jamaica. Among other things this puts an end to its use a pirate base. [Jamaica was British in the real world; here it is claimed by the Spanish, but in name only.]
The Pope condemns the New Commonwealth for the first time. It is by no means the last time he does this.
The first official newspaper of the New Commonwealth, the Boston Herald, begins publication in Boston. This remains the main official organ of the New Commonwealth.
[Events happening rather differently here compared to those in the real world, there are no Salem witch trials.]
The Dutch sign a number of treaties of defence and trade with various north German Protestant states. They also begin fortifying their borders, particularly with France, building modern new defensive systems. [With France occupied elsewhere, and British naval power defeated, the Dutch are able to retain and increase their strength.]
Gold is discovered in the Minas Geraes region of Brazil.
Entrepreneurs in the New Commonwealth set up the Bank of New England to help with the financing of the War of Holy Liberation.
Inspired by the uprising in the New World, Protestants and others in Britain rise up against the King, and the Fifth Civil War begins. This seriously hampers British efforts to retain control of the New World colonies, with forces kept at home to fight there rather than being sent abroad.
Comet Jacob makes a bright appearance that lasts for several weeks.
Tsar Ivan V of Russia, who is an invalid, dies. His co-Tsar Peter I (now aged 24) begins to rule alone.
Peter I conquers the city of Azov.
The Fifth Civil War ends with the crushing of the British rebels. Brutal reprisals and investigations root out all the traces of dissent that they can find.
Jesuit missionaries found a mission at Loreto, the first of twenty-three in Baja California.
Tayassal, the capital of the Peten Itza Maya, the last independent Central American state, is conquered by Spain.
The Manchu Empire conquers western Mongolia.
The Prussian East Indies Company is founded.
British expatriate Thomas Savery, now living in the Netherlands, having studied the work of Denis Papin, patents a steam-driven suction water pump. This finds wide application in the low-lying Netherlands, as does one of his earlier inventions, an arrangement of paddlewheels driven by a capstan for propelling vessels in calm weather. [In the real world Savery remained an Englishman.]
In an effort to westernise his people, Tsar Peter I of Russia imposes a tax on beards.
Tsar Peter I of Russia travels to western Europe, where he stays at the courts of many of the powerful leaders of the time. He studies shipbuilding in Amsterdam [in the real world he also studies at Deptford, in England, but events here make that impractical], working as a labourer in the yards of the Dutch East India Company. Using what he has learned in his travels he begins to reform and modernise many aspects of Russian life.
German explorers and merchants begin founding trading posts and colonies around the world. Many of these are absorbed into the Prussian East India Company.
The Peace of Karlowitz ends the war with the Turks, making Austria a major power in the region. Venice receives the Morea region.
A massive earthquake occurs in British Columbia.
King James II of Britain dies of old age, and is succeeded by his son, born in 1666, who becomes King Charles III. [In the real world he died in 1667; he is the second son of James to be named Charles; the first one also died.]
The Great Northern War between Russia and Sweden begins. Denmark-Norway sides with Russia. The Netherlands and some of the north German states ally with Sweden.
Charles XII of Sweden defeats a Russian army five times larger than his at Narva. However, rather than destroying the Russian army he turns against the elected King August II of Poland-Lithuania and deposes him.
During the early eighteenth century the Dutch and the French explore the new lands of Terra Australis [Australia].
In Chipangu [Japan], forty-seven ronin, formerly in the service of Asano Naganori, assault the household of Kira Yoshinaka, and kill him in vengeance for their lord. Their display of the ideals of bushido becomes a Chipangese national legend.
An earthquake in Tokyo kills two hundred thousand people.
Peter the Great founds the city of St Petersburg.
In Chipangu the forty-seven ronin commit seppuku (ritual suicide).
After years of vicious fighting, with many atrocities on both sides, the last British and French forces are expelled from New England and Canada. These areas are now united in the New Commonwealth.
The French divert many of their colonisation efforts to the Louisiana area, and up the River Mississippi.
As the New Commonwealth grows, the Native Americans who live within it are pressured to convert to Puritanism and integrate with Commonwealth society. Many do not, and there is continuing strife between them and the New Commonwealth. Large numbers of Native Americans begin to move west, out of the Commonwealth. This often leads to conflict with other tribes into whose land they are moving.
Catholic British who have migrated to the New World also find themselves either forced to convert, or driven further and further west. [Much like the Mormons in the real world.]
Deficiencies and things learnt from fighting against the Puritans lead to a number of reforms in the French and British armies. Various reforms of the French government and administration also arise from this. Other nations also learn from this.
What become known as the Indian Wars, of the New Commonwealth versus the various tribes of Native Americans who resist them, continue for decades. In many cases the Indians are assisted by the French or Spanish against the New Commonwealth.
As the New Commonwealth grows, Cromwell divides it into a number of Major-Generalships, with new ones being added as required. The first of these are the Major-Generalships of Boston, Massachusetts and New England.
The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb dies of old age, leaving behind an Empire greatly weakened by the decades of war he engaged in. Ignoring Aurangzeb's will, his sons immediately begin a war of succession which weakens the Empire still further.
France, aided by England and several German states, attempts to invade the Netherlands in what becomes known as the Second Franco-Dutch War. However, the new defensive fortifications of the Dutch, along with their alliances with other north German states prove highly effective, and the French are thrown back in disarray.
Helped by France, the Maratha Empire begins to expand and fill the void left by the disintegration of the Mughal Empire [much as in the real world],taking territory from the Mughal Empire, while other territories of the Mughal Empire secede from it, weakening it more and more. This leaves India more and more open to exploitation by foreign powers who, as time passes, become the backers and powers behind the throne in more and more Indian states.
As time passes more and more foreign trade is forced on India by Portugal, the Netherlands and France. As the Mughal Empire continues to weaken and fragment, much of this trade is of a military nature.
Work is completed on the Palace of Versailles, outside Paris.
The Prussian East India Company founds a trading post in the Congo.
A French Catholic assassinates Lord Protector Richard Cromwell of the New Commonwealth before being killed himself. Frederick Cromwell, Richard's son, becomes the new Lord Protector and vows revenge upon those responsible for the death of his father.
Anti-Catholic pogroms spread across the New Commonwealth.
In the Treaty of Maastricht, the Second Franco-Dutch War is officially brought to an end, with both sides guaranteeing the border between them 'in perpetuity'.
The Swedish invasion of Russia is stymied by the harsh conditions and the Swedish army is defeated at the Battle of Poltava, effectively ending Sweden's role as a major power in Europe. Charles XII flees to the Ottoman Empire. The Russian army is nonetheless encircled. Peter the Great bribes his way out in exchange for the city of Azov.
Englishman Thomas Newcomen patents a steam-powered water pump in England, based partly on the ideas of Thomas Savery. [In the real world Savery and Newcomen became partners and built the first Newcomen engine in 1712.]
With the 'reforms' of the Church of England complete, King Charles III announces that relations between the Church of England and that of Rome have been 'normalised', with the assistance of the French government, and to ensure the protection of Britain against the imperialist Dutch.
The Church of England becomes a semi-autonomous 'sub-religion' of Catholicism, sending tithes to Rome at a state level, but being allowed to conduct sermons in English, and with the King of England remaining its Supreme Governor. Despite calls for another uprising against this, most resistance to the royal 'reforms' has by now been crushed and no significant disturbances occur.
At the same time England abandons the Julian Calendar and adopt the more accurate Gregorian calendar that has been used in Catholic Europe since 1582. Upon its adoption the date jumps forward over eleven intervening days, which are simply missed. [This is much earlier than in the real world, where this change of calendar occurred in Britain in 1752.]
The New Commonwealth sets up the Bank of Massachusetts as the government central bank.
An increasingly acrimonious series of letters exchanged between the Protestant bishops of the Netherlands and those of the New Commonwealth argue the positions of their respective states. The New Commonwealth argues that the Netherlands are far too tolerant of the Catholics of Europe. The Netherlands that the New Commonwealth is unrealistically bigoted against the harsh facts of reality.
King Louis XIV of France dies after a reign of seventy-two years, leaving the throne to his five-year-old great-grandson Louis XV. The nephew of Louis XIV, Philippe d'Orleans, takes over as regent.
With the 'final' imposition of the 'reforms' of the Church of England, King Charles III announces the planned re-unification of the Church of England with the Church of Rome, and he and his family publicly covert to Catholicism in Westminster Abbey. Again, calls for another uprising against this are made across the country, but again, most resistance has been crushed and no significant disturbances occur. This is helped by the fact that the services and so on of the 'reformed' Church of England are very similar to those of the Catholic Church, especially as Britain retains the right to conduct services in English.
The Turks re-conquer the Morea region from the Venetians.
In order to help their national finances, protect their industry at home, and to ensure a dependant market in their colonies there, the Dutch begin forcibly de-industrialising their Indian holdings. [This is very similar to, and for very similar reasons as, the forced de-industrialization of India by the British East India Company in the real world.]
The Third Turkish War over the Turkish invasion of Morea leads to the Turks losing Belgrade and ends in the Peace of Passarowitz.
The new Whitehall Palace is completed, long after the death of Charles I, who ordered its construction begun in 1658.
With great ceremony, the Church of England is reunited with the Church of Rome, and the few remaining British churches and cathedrals not already re-dedicated to Catholicism are re-dedicated now. The few instances of unrest at this are easily crushed.
Protestantism goes underground in Britain as Catholicism is imposed. However, only the most devout Protestants actually hide their faith. Most of them accept that, given how similar the 'reformed' Church of England is to Catholicism, they are truly one faith.
Priest-holes and secret churches very similar to those used by Catholics during earlier years are now built and used by Protestants for the same reasons. They are not actually the same places, as the true religion of the owners of places with them generally does not change. Secret Protestant publications and resistance groups are also founded, but can do little.
Protestants from Britain and the rest of the Europe, fleeing persecution, trickle across the Atlantic into the New Commonwealth. Because of this continuing reminder of the problems their brethren suffer in Europe, and because the emigrants tend to be the most devout Protestants, who most want to 'save' their former homeland from the 'evils' of 'Popery', the New Commonwealth comes to see itself as the only hope of 'truth' against the Catholic 'evil' gripping Europe.
The effort required to impose Catholicism on Britain again hinders its development.
The fact that Britain is allowed to conduct Catholic services in its native language inspires other nations to press for the same privilege. The Vatican generally grants them this right.
The French begin a series of harassing attacks on the New Commonwealth with the intention of forcing them to give back the former French colonies in Canada. When they resist this, the Franco-American War breaks out.
Charles XII of Sweden is killed in battle.
After suffering a series of financial crises, the British East India Company goes bankrupt. Having little choice in the matter, the British crown sells the British East India Company to the French government, where its holdings are merged with those of the French East India Company.
The Spanish establish a mission at La Paz in Baja California.
The Prussian East India Company founds trading posts in west and east Africa.
Gold is discovered in the Matto Grosso region of Brazil.
After years of back-and-forth battles the Dutch and French, both interested in maintaining the balance of power in northern Europe, help the Swedes maintain some of their possessions. The Great Northern War ends with Russia supplanting Sweden as the major Baltic power. [This happened in 1721 in the real world.]
The Protestant churches of the Netherlands and the New Commonwealth officially split from one another over the irreconcilable differences between them.
Manchu Emperor K'ang Hsi dies after massively expanding the Chinese Empire in size and power.
King Louis XV of France reaches the royal legal age of maturity - fourteen years old - and takes the reins of power from his Regent and uncle, Philippe d'Orleans.
Tsar Peter I, the Great, of Russia, dies of old age and is succeeded by his wife, who becomes Tsarina Catherine I.
Tsarina Catherine I, of Russia, dies of old age and is succeeded by the grandson of Peter the Great (by Peter's son Alexis), who becomes Tsar Peter II.
An earthquake in Tabriz, Iran kills approximately seventy seven thousand people.
Isaac Newton's Law of Gravitation and Laws of Motion are published posthumously after being discovered hidden in his rooms. [In the real world they were published in 1687 in the Principia Mathematica, but in this world, with no Edmund Halley to inspire him to publish, he does not do so, and they are only discovered after his death. Thus the distribution of some of the most influential scientific work ever written is delayed by some forty years. Also, because they are not published in the form of a book, the ideas in his posthumous papers are much less well-organised and coherent than in the real world, further delaying their widespread understanding and use. The lack of a British Royal Society also hinders the understanding and distribution of Newton's ideas.]
The Franco-American War sputters to a close after ten years, with little resolved on either side.
Tsar Peter II dies and is succeeded by the niece of Peter the Great, who becomes Tsarina Anna I.
King Charles III of Britain dies of old age, and is succeeded by his daughter, who becomes Queen Mary II (she was born in 1686).
Lord Protector Frederick Cromwell of the New Commonwealth dies of old age and is succeeded by his son, who becomes Lord Protector Benjamin Cromwell.
Following the Dutch example, the French also begin forcibly de-industrialising their Indian holdings.
Manchu Emperor Ch'ien Lung comes to the Chinese throne.
The bright comet Levesque [Bradley] is seen for several weeks.
As French, Dutch and Portuguese traders compete in India, conflicts occur that spread into what becomes known as the First Indian War, with European forces and those of their Indian proxies fighting on battlefields across the sub-continent.
The Prussian East India Company founds the first of its trading posts in the far east. This grows into the colony of Peguwaddi [in real world Burma/Myanmar].
Taking advantage of the First Indian War, Persian Shah Tahmasp III invades the northern Mughal Empire, taking both territory and loot. [This is roughly equivalent to the actions of Nadir Shah in the real world.]
The First Indian War ends with a re-arrangement of the boundaries of the French, Portuguese and Dutch territories in India, as well as the loss of territory to them by the Mughal Empire, which also loses territory to the French-backed Maratha Empire
Tsarina Anna I of Russia dies of old age and is succeeded by Tsarina Elizabeth I. [Her death is a year earlier than in the real world; this eliminates Tsar Ivan VI, and changes the entire order of the succeeding Tsars and Tsarinas. The most important change is the removal of Tsarina Catherine II, the Great.]
Dutchman Harmanus Teuniszen van Breuckelen greatly improves on the steam engine designs of Savery and Newcomen. [In the real world James Watt improved Newcomen's engine, in 1765.]
A bright comet is seen for several weeks.
Harmanus Teuniszen van Breuckelen patents the first waterborne steam engine, that he uses to propel riverboats.
Frenchman Albert Covillaud, a military engineer, invents the steam powered road vehicle, primarily for towing artillery. It moves at a mile an hour. Official resistance to this idea and its need for good roads prevents its being widely adopted, but it is used in some places. [In the real world this was developed by Cugnot in 1769 but was never very successful.]
In the Netherlands, canals begin to be improved, and more built, to allow better access for steam-powered vessels. The same is done in many of their colonies.
Other nations begin to build canals too. In particular the New Commonwealth uses them to facilitate trade and transportation.
With the expansion of trade into the far east, trade with China grows, and Chinese goods begin to flow back to Europe, beginning a fashion for all things Chinese. The problem with this, from the European point of view, is that China is uninterested in taking anything other than money from foreigners. All of the nations and companies involved in the China trade work to undo this policy, but with little success.
Persia begins to expand north into central Asia.
Queen Mary II of Britain dies of old age, and is succeeded by her grandson, born in 1727, who becomes King James III.
Wanting to improve things in the Kingdom, King James introduces a number of reforms aimed at making his rule less despotic.
An earthquake levels Lisbon, the Portuguese capital, and is felt as far away as southern France and North Africa. Seventy thousand people are killed, and great damage is done to the Portuguese Empire as it struggles to recover from the earthquake.
After dissent grows, and he is badly injured by a Puritan assassin, King James is forced to undo many of the reforms introduced in 1753, for the safety of the realm, and of his own person.
Lord Protector Benjamin Cromwell of the New Commonwealth dies of old age and is succeeded by his son, who becomes Lord Protector Ebenezer Cromwell.
A bright comet appears. Using Newton's Law of Gravitation, Guiseppe Barberini at the Vatican Observatory deduces that this is the same comet as has been seen on a number of previous occasions. He predicts that it will reappear in 1835. [This is what, in the real world, would be Halley's Comet. However, there is no Halley here.]
The New Commonwealth sends a fleet to destroy the Barbary Pirates, who have been attacking their ships and those of other nations. With the support of the Dutch, French, Spanish and some of the Italian states in a drawn-out campaign the pirates are eventually wiped out.
The French use the destruction of the Barbary Pirates to establish control of parts of what becomes Algeria. Spain begins to establish control of Morocco. The Kingdom of Sicily, in Italy, also establishes control of Tunis, that they rename Carthage.
This marks the start of an extended campaign against slavery by the New Commonwealth. In all cases freed slaves are given the choice of being repatriated to Africa or converting and becoming Commonwealth citizens.
The northward expansion of Persia into central Asia brings it into conflict with the Russian Empire. What becomes known as the Persian War begins.
Another Great Comet appears.
Experiments with mounting artillery on Covillaud's steam tractor fail due to problems with recoil and stability.
The Dutch plant the first permanent settlement in Terra Australis, at Meadow Bay [Botany Bay, Sydney]. Other Dutch and French settlements follow at other points around the coast of Terra Australis.
A secret agreement by Prussia, Austria and Russia, the 'Alliance of the Three Black Eagles' partitions Poland, weak and riven by civil war, although trying to recover, among themselves. The Poles can do little to stop this, and are left with only a small rump Poland. [In the real world the first partition of Poland happened in 1772.]
Despite occasional uprisings and attempts to regain their independance, Poland remains very much under the thumb of Prussia, Austria and Russia.
Comet Filion [Kinkenberg] is seen.
The New Commonwealth demands that the Spanish, who have been supplying Native Americans with arms to use against them, and so who the Commonwealth sees as a continuing threat to itself, leave Florida. The Spanish refuse, and what becomes known as the Floridan War breaks out.
Tsarina Elizabeth I of Russia dies of old age and is succeeded by Tsar Paul I.
At the Battle of Panipat, the French-backed Maratha Empire is defeated by a smaller Afghan force, stopping the expansion of the Maratha Empire. [This is much like the case in the real world, although at a somewhat later time because of different events in this world.]
Harmanus Teuniszen van Breuckelen produces the first steam-driven sea-going vessel for the Dutch Navy. However, it is quite vulnerable to bad weather.
A Spanish assassin badly injures Lord Protector Ebenezer Cromwell before being killed himself. Cromwell dies of his injuries a few days later. He is succeeded by his nephew, who becomes Lord Protector Uriah Cromwell, and urges the forces of the New Commonwealth on to greater efforts against the heretic Catholics.
Fighting with renewed vigour after the attacks on the Lord Protector, the New Commonwealth forces the Floridan War to an end, with the Spanish being driven out of Florida with great loss of life.
This war and the assassination of the Lord Protector that came as part of it helps to reinforce the feeling in the New Commonwealth that they are constantly threatened by the (largely heretical) European powers.
The Special Puritan Guard (the SPG) are formed as a group of dedicated bodyguards for the Lord Protector and any other people considered to be of special importance.
As time goes by the Special Puritan Guard become the feared and hated core of the New Commonwealth secret police.
Dutch, French and German traders establish trading posts in New Zeeland, but given the distances involved, very little actual settlement takes place.
What becomes known as San Francisco Bay is discovered by Spanish Missionaries. [1769 in the real world.]
The Persian War ends with the defeat of Persia and its expulsion from central Asia, although Russia has also suffered great losses.
Lord Protector Uriah Cromwell of the New Commonwealth dies of old age and is succeeded by his son, who becomes Lord Protector Jedidiah Cromwell.
The bright comet Dennysen [Messier] is seen for several months.
Comet Dennysen-Lavalle [Lexell] is seen for several weeks.
Instigated by the new Lord Protector, the New Commonwealth forms the Committee of State Security to guard itself from all threats, internal and external. This heads the Ministry of Security, which carries out the orders of the Committee.
Another Great Comet appears.
Dutch navigator Jacobus Nicolaszen develops the Method of Lunar Distances as a means of calculating longitude and thus navigating accurately. Although complex and long-winded, it is the most accurate method currently available, and as such the Dutch keep it very much a state secret. [In the real world this happened earlier, and in Britain.]
Tsar Paul I of Russia dies and is succeeded by Tsar Alexander I.
Comet Kretuzberg [Biela] is seen.
The first robustly steam-propelled ocean-going ship is built in the Netherlands. It is a warship.
Another Great Comet appears.
The first permanent Russian settlement is founded in Alyeska. However, fur traders have been coming here for decades, and ranging far south down the Pacific coast of North America.
[Because of the different history here, there is no Emelian Pugachev, a Don Cossack who, in the real world, led a huge Russian peasant uprising in 1773 to 1774. The lack of this uprising allows the Russian government to maintain somewhat more liberal internal policies.]
King Louis XV of France dies of old age and is succeeded by his son, who becomes King Louis XVI.
Spanish missionaries found a mission in San Francisco Bay. [1776 in the real world.]
Henrietta Stuart, the daughter and heir of King James III of Britain, and wife of Prince Charles Bourbon of France, dies of tuberculosis. Her eldest son, also named Charles Bourbon, becomes heir to the British throne in her place.
Differences over trade and borders in India cause the Second Indian War to break out between France, Portugal and the Netherlands, with help from their various Indian proxies.
Prussia and Austria sign a mutual defensive pact, the Austro-Prussian Alliance.
The Portuguese, although they have some problems, prove far more effective than anticipated in the Second Indian War as they use war rockets obtained from their ally, the Sultan of Mysore, to very good effect.
Other nations also begin to adopt the use of rockets in war.