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It is discovered that x-rays can cause mutations in living organisms. This technique begins to be used in the breeding of new and improved crops, contributing to the 'green revolution'.

Quebec begins to demand territorial rights in Greenland. Denmark-Norway refuses to consider any such concessions.

The OSU crushes an attempt at Greek secession.

In the aftermath of the Second Societal Wars, the government of Portugal introduces a wide range of political reforms, including political freedoms and a high degree of local autonomy and representation in the Portuguese government for its colonies. As part of this the Portuguese Empire renames itself the Comunidade Portuguese [the Portuguese Commonwealth].

Comet Hansen [Perrine] appears.

As understanding of mutation advances, some religious figures come to consider it to be the work of the Devil, and producing artificial mutations to thus be evil.


After four years of war, the OSU and the Russian Empire negotiate a settlement to end the Caucasus War. The Crimea is returned to Russia; Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan remain Ottoman. The new Ottoman-Russian border is the Caucasus Mountains. Initial treaty negotiations suggest the creation of buffer states - Georgia and Armenia - between Russia and the OSU, but this idea is dropped as negotiations continue.

Acting on a pretext, Quebec invades Greenland. What becomes known as the Greenland War begins.

In London, construction of a new Houses of Parliament begins. The new Parliament is to replace the old one, burnt to the ground in 1892, during the Second Societal Wars.


The rest of the Northern System joins Denmark-Norway in the war against Quebec.

The Rationalist regime in Peru invades several of its smaller neighbours, intent on also incorporating them into its Rationalist regime.

With their newfound internal autonomy, and wanting to speed the development of their country, as well as protect themselves against Peruvian aggression, the Brazilian government opens its borders to the immigration of Catholics from Europe.

Over time some millions of European Catholics emigrate to Brazil, greatly helping its development. In particular, large number of Poles, dissatisfied with the position of their country as a puppet between Russia, the Union and the Holy Roman Empire, travel to Brazil and make new lives there, to the point that by the present day most Brazilian cities have a 'Cidade Polonês' ['Polishtown'] area in them.


Queen Sophia I of Britain dies. She is succeeded by her daughter (born in 1840), who becomes Queen Sophia II.

In Manchu China, a coup topples the Manchu Emperor, who is executed by his own bodyguards. The new leadership welcomes in the forces of Long China, merging the two Chinas back into one.

Changes to public opinion driven by advances in biological knowledge cause the negotiation of an international agreement to abolish all slavery around the world to be signed in Paris. Adherence to this agreement varies...

Chile, Argentina, Gran Chaco and Brazil ally against Peru to curb its further expansion.

A fatal crash in the Libyan eyelet of the OSU kills inventor Perihan Ghereby and many of her assitants and supporters as they work on a powered rotary-winged skycraft [a helicopter].


The first semi-automatic pistol is marketed in the Union. [In the real world this was in 1894.]

The first experimental dual-power steam and compressed air powered submarine is launched by the Union. From the first it suffers considerable problems.

Prajesh Badri D'Agartala, founder of Nayaa Rasta (the New Way) is assassinated by hard-line Hindus from one of the Indou militias. Violence ensues, as militias in support of the New Way form too. D'Agartala has many followers and Nayaa Rasta grows and spreads despite attempts to wipe it out.

French forces move to restore the Manchu Dynasty. The Long Chinese forces are unable to hold them off for long, and France soon regains control of Manchu China. A new emperor is installed, and punitive strikes cripple the Long Chinese army.

Despite the assassination of its leader, Nayaa Rasta thrives and spreads. It becomes the official faith of several of the states in north-east India, including the Royal State of Tripura. It also spreads across India to other areas where Indouism is practised, and even beyond that.

There have been sporadic religious massacres and wars between followers of Indouism and Nayaa Rasta, some instigated by one side, some by the other. Nayaa Rasta has also schismed into several different Ways. In some places followers of Indouism and Nayaa Rasta live peacefully side-by-side.

In the aftermath of the Manchu Coup, the many problems with the Long Chinese system revealed by the fighting with France cause many of the reforms proposed by Ouyang Suiliang to be adopted. As this is done, the Long Chinese system greatly improves.

In France, ecosystem-based politics begin to evolve out of Physiocracy, as science begins to show how everything is linked together in the web of life.

Over time the absolutist French system leads to more ecologically sound principles being applied there than anywhere else, admittedly more by luck than judgement.


After the bombing of several cities in Quebec by the Northern System causes widespread casualties, Quebec agrees to end the Greenland War. Denmark-Norway maintains it control of Greenland.

In the aftermath of the Second Societal Wars and the ascension of Queen Sophia II to the British throne, Wales joins Ireland and Scotland and is admitted to the Union as a separate nation.

Hydroponic farming is proved to be a valid technique for growing food. [In the real world this was invented in 1929.]


A Great Comet, also known as Comet Cullen [Biscara], appears. This is a naked-eye comet in the Southern Hemisphere.


Miners from Hudsonian Pennsylvania are found to be tunnelling under Columbian Pennsylvania and mining Colombian coal. Protests by the Colombian government fail to stop this practise, so Colombian miners take matters into their own hand and demolish several Hudsonian tunnels with great loss of life. Hudsonian troops cross the border to punish those responsible, and the Coal War begins.

Radiant [radio] waves are discovered; the name they are given is derived from 'radiant telegraphy' [in the real world they were discovered in 1878, and were used for wireless telegraphy].

Mount Pelee on the island of Martinique erupts killing twenty-nine thousand people in a pyroclastic flow.

Nearly seventeen hundred people are killed in ash flows from the Soufriere volcano on the island of St Vincent.

The eruption of the Santa Maria volcano in Guatemala kills four thousand people via ash falls, disease and starvation.


The first practical electric motor is developed. [This is later than in the real world, where this occurred in the 1870s.]

When Peru ignores an ultimatum by Chile, Argentina, Gran Chaco and Brazil and invades Paraguay, the alliance declares war on Peru. The Rationalist War begins.

Comet Johanneszoon [Borrelly] is discovered.


Queen Sophia II of Britain dies. She is succeeded by her son (born in 1864), who becomes King William VI.

King Charles XI of France dies aged fifty-two. He is succeeded by his son, who becomes King Louis XIX.

After Hudsonian miners agree not to tunnel under Colombian territory, and Columbia pays reparations to the families of the dead Hudsonian miners, the Coal War ends.

Radioactivity is discovered. [In the real world this happened in 1896.]

The first skycraft carrying warship is launched.

An earthquake in Kangra, India, kills three hundred and seventy thousand people.


A powerful earthquake strikes the city of Yerba Buena [San Francisco], in Kaliforniya, demolishing it and starting many fires.

The first submarine powered by a combination of internal combustion and electric motors is launched by Dutch. Although far from perfect this has far fewer problems than the combined steam-air propelled submarine launched in the Union in 1899.

The OSU opens negotiations with various of its neighbours to create a free trade and defensive union in the region.

The Prussian Royal Family begin to use eugenic techniques, both to improve themselves, and also to encourage its wide adoption by the rest of the Prussian people.

Submarines using combined internal combustion and electric propulsion begin to be adopted around the world.


The Rationalist War ends as Chile, Argentina, Gran Chaco and Brazil crush the Peruvian Rationalist regime. The victims of Peruvian expansion are freed and become independent nations once again, and a new government is set up in Peru itself.


Something explodes over Tunguska in Siberia, devastating more than two thousand square kilometres of forest.

The first experimental radio communications occur in the Netherlands.

The first commercial skyline [airline] begins operations in the Netherlands.

Eighty-seven thousand people die when an earthquake and Tsunami strikes Messina, Italy.

Following years of work and assisted by a number of fount-based analyses, Ottoman scholars publish the first translation of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics into a modern language.

As news of the translation of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics spreads around the world, public interest in all things Ancient Egyptian begins to occur across Europe and elsewhere. [This is a much delayed version of the Egyptomania of the real world.]


Over-farming in parts of Columbia, combined with a prolonged drought, leads to the wind carrying off large amount of topsoil and creating vast dustbowls. [This happening in the USA in the 1930s in the real world.]

The same problem happens in other over-farmed areas of the world when droughts occur. Many nations conduct research into the best ways to avoid these problems recurring.


The first geothermal electrical power stations begin to produce power in Kamchatka after being developed by engineers from the ASF. [In the real world the first such power station was in Italy in 1904].

A Fifth Zulu-Matabele War occurs after skirmishes along the border.

The Daylight or Winter Comet appears. It has a brilliant tail fifty degrees long and is visible during the day.

A second comet appears in Mid-April to May with two tails, one thirty degrees long, and one curved and ten degrees long.

Comet Halley reappears, and is very bright with a tail some one hundred degrees long.

The technology for geothermal electricity generation is exported or copied to other suitable places across the world, and is particularly adopted in the Kingdom of Naples, Kaliforniya and Iceland, as well as in parts of the Dutch Indies, Neuer Hanover and Neues Prussia.


After more than a decade of negotiations, and with the tacit approval of France, the OSU and the nations of Soudan, Egypt and Abyssinia sign the Treaty of Alexandria, forming the Alexandrian Concord, a trading and defensive alliance. Several other nations in the region also begin to express an interest in joining the Concord.

More than thirteen hundred people are killed by ash flows when Mount Taal in the Philippines erupts.

Comet Frank [Brooks] appears with a bluish, straight tail thirty degrees long. It is visible to the unaided eye. At the same time comet Haverforth [Beljawsky] appears with a yellowish tail some fifteen degrees long. It is also visible to the unaided eye in the sky at the same time as comet Frank .

Over time and with the strong OSU supporting it, many of the independent Arab and North-Eastern African states join the Alexandrian Concord, as opposed to becoming European colonies. In time the Alexandrian Concord develops political and trade links down the east coast of Africa, forming something like the real world EU. There are some conflicts with France (who controls some of that area) and New Israel, but nothing fatal.

The Alexandrian Concord includes a variety of governments, but all are benevolent (by Ottoman lights) as a condition for membership. Being Islamic is not a condition for membership, though there are rumours that non-Muslim states are subtlety discriminated against.


There is a major eruption of Mount Katmai in Alyeska. However, as it takes place in an isolated area no-one is killed.

A particularly intense wave of pro-Long China terrorism sweeps across Manchu China. There is also unrest among the Chinese-descended population of the Alyesko-Siberian Federation.

Following the example of the Brazilian government, the Kingdom of Mapuche also attempts to encourage immigration from Europe to boost the development of the country.

After being in decline for decades, the Confederation of Columbia finally makes slavery illegal.


With bipodiste policies limiting the expansions of cities, construction begins in Paris on the worlds first skyscraper building.


The first telephone service from France to India becomes operational, using cables laid overland and under the sea.

Turkmenistan opens negotiations with the intention of joining the Alexandrian Concord.

Interrogation of terrorists captured in Manchu China reveal that Long China is funding much of the terrorist activity there, and also funding some of the pro-Chinese unrest in the Alyesko-Siberian Federation. The Manchu and Alyesko-Siberian governments, backed by the French, demand that Long China stop these activities. The Long Chinese government claims ignorance of them.

The Second Zulu-Tswana War occurs after skirmishes along the border.


As Alexandrian Concord-Turkmenistan negotiations proceed, Russia steps in to stop a nation it sees as falling into its sphere of influence joining another alliance system. It begins a 'tutelary' war against Turkmenistan, intended to discourage them from allying with the Ottomans as well as to re-colonise them.

The steam turbine is invented by inventor Michael Giles in New England. [In the real world this was invented in the 1890s.]

After repeated demands are rejected, the French, Alyesko-Siberian and Manchu Chinese governments declare war on Long China, and the Long War begins. Initial invasion fails to make much progress, but a campaign of sustained aerial bombing begins to severely damage Long China.


As part of the Turkmen War, the Russians unleash a tailored crop disease which becomes known as The Blight. Although it works as intended, crippling the Turkmen's food supplies, it spreads further than intended, due to contamination of troops and so on, along with the use of crop mono-cultures in which everything is the same variety. It causes famine across a wide area.

A largely bloodless coup with the support of much of the military and bureaucracy removes the Long Chinese Emperor from his throne and replaces him with his younger brother. In the aftermath of this Long China comes to the negotiating table. It agrees to stop funding terrorism in Manchu China and unrest in the Alyesko-Siberian Federation, and to pay reparation for its activities. With this agreement the Long War ends.

With the change of Emperor, a number of changes are made to the Long Chinese government. As part of this the strict central control of the Long Chinese economy that has existed up to this point is relaxed and a (regulated) free market economy re-introduced.

Despite these changes the cost of the Long War cripples the development of Long China for decades.


As the Blight begins to affect Russian crops, the Turkmen War ends with the Treaty of Moscow, in which Turkmenistan agrees not to join the Alexandrian Concord. However, it also does not join the Russian Empire. Russia pays significant reparations to non-combatant nations affected by the Blight.

The Blight still recurs from time to time around the world, although crop strains resistant to it have been developed. Its existence leads to research into disease-free artificial food, although these prove to be bad for people in the long term, and then to the production of food via hydroponics is sealed units.

Research is also performed on increasing the genetic diversity of food plants and so make them less vulnerable to disease; this has considerably more success. [This results in crops which are less of a mono-culture than many in the real world.]


Finding the significant numbers of its troops who were involved in the Long War are now addicted to opium, France bans it and applies pressure to spread this ban as far across the world as possible.


Mud flows form the eruption of Mount Kelut in Java kill more than five thousand people.

A Sixth Zulu-Matabele War occurs after skirmishes along the border.


Dutch explorer Marius Rutgerszoon becomes the first person to lead an expedition to the South Pole. He claims it, and large swathes of Antarctica, for the Dutch crown. [In the real world the first people to reach the South Pole were the Amundsen expedition in 1911.]

A powerful earthquake kills one hundred thousand people in Gansu, China.


In London, construction of the new Houses of Parliament is finally completed, and they are opened with great pomp and ceremony. The new Parliament buildings replace the old ones which were burnt to the ground in 1892, during the Second Societal Wars.

In the aftermath of the Blight the first Arche Gesellschaft [Ark Society] is founded in the Union by a consortium of farmers and philanthropists to preserve varieties of crop plants and domestic animals for the future.


The submachine gun is invented by a team of blacksmiths working in Zululand. [In the real world this was invented in 1918.]

Afghanistan declares war on Tajikistan, with the intention of conquering them. They begin the Tajik War with the use of a weaponised form of anthrax sold by the French to their Afghan allies, along with a vaccine. This works but, again, spreads further than intended, to Russia, India and other neighbouring countries, as well as, in a few cases, to other countries all around the world.

A massive accident at the University of Ouro Preto in Brazil kills aeronautical researcher Aloysio Dantas, who was working on powered rotary-winged skycraft [helicopters]. It also kills most of his team of assistants, a large number of other university staff, and destroys a significant part of the university. The university bans all such research in the future.

As with other uses of biological weapons, the disease still surfaces from time to time, and significant areas of central Asia are contaminated with it [like Gruinard Island in the real world] and are either unusable, or have had to be decontaminated at great expense.

The death of Aloysio Dantas and other fatal helicopter-related accidents leads the aeronautical establishment to consider helicopters to be suicidally dangerous. Instead, development focuses on gyros [autogyros] instead.

As the Alexandrian Concord expands down the coast of East Africa, their traders come into conflict with those of New Israel. Both sides begin to impose trade barriers to the other, and to send warships to guard their interests in the various ports.


As the source of the Anthrax plague used in the Tajik War becomes clear, Russia declares war on Afghanistan, and on France. What becomes known as the Russo-French War begins, as both sides fight back and forth over Persia and the central Asian states that lie between them.

The Great Kanto Earthquake strikes Tokyo and Yokohama in French Japan, killing some two hundred thousand people.


After Ottoman warships sink a New Israel merchant ship at Zanzibar, New Israel declares war on the OSU. What becomes known as the Zanzibar War begins. This is, and remains, a largely naval war.


Denmark-Norway sells its Indian colony of Tranquebar to Russia.

An earthquake strikes Santa Barbara, in Kaliforniya.

After years of growing support, the King of Tripura decrees that Nayaa Ratsa is now the official religion of the Princely State of Tripura.


The Russo-French War ends with the French agreeing to pay reparations to the Russians for their losses. Otherwise, the status quo is maintained.

After trade up and down the East African coast is completely disrupted by the Zanzibar War, to the good of neither side, New Israel and the OSU negotiate an end to the war, culminating in the signing of the Treaty of Zanzibar, which opens all of the ports of East Africa to both the OSU and New Israel.

A long Cold War with biological WMDs begins. There are widespread, if largely unfounded, fears of terrible biological warfare agents being smuggled into cities and so on.

During the Russo-French War, Russian aviator Gennadiy Innokentiyvitch Illarionov becomes ... eccentric ... and upon his return begins to develop radical new skycraft designs. He soon proves to be a genius at aeronautics. However, because of his social standing and lack of social skills, he finds no support in Russia.


Two hundred thousand people die when a powerful earthquake strikes Xining, in Long China.

Comet Gillet [Skjellerup-Maristany], a yellow comet, appears between November and December and is visible in the Southern Hemisphere.


With the aid of intensive fount analysis, the double helix structure of nuclein [DNA] is discovered by Lazare Braconnot at the University of Versailles. [In the real world this was discovered in 1953.]

Getting no support for his ideas in Russia, Gennadiy Innokentiyvitch Illarionov becomes an émigré and after travelling Europe seeking the support he desires, eventually settles in the Netherlands.

The King of Tripura, who made Nayaa Rasta the official relgion of Tripura in 1925, is assassinated by a Hindu fanatic. Although this leads to violence and a succession struggle, it only helps to cement the support for Nayaa Rasta by both the people and government of Tripura.

With a backer, Gennadiy Innokentiyvitch Illarionov produces many designs that greatly advance skycraft design, making them far faster, longer-ranged, more manoeuvrable and economically viable machines. His company, Illarionov Luchtvaart (Illarionov Aviation) becomes the most successful skycraft producer in the world. He proves the superiority of asymmetric skycraft driven by pusher propellers. [He leans towards asymmetry because, to many Russians, symmetry is considered to be the enemy of beauty.]

Because of this, the Dutch are the first to make widespread non-military use of skycraft, because of their various widespread colonial holdings. The Union and France also adopt them, for the same reasons.


The first transatlantic telephone cable becomes operational. [In the real world this happened in 1927.]

After the medical evidence against it becomes simply too great, France bans the use of tobacco within its Empire. Almost immediately a brisk illegal trade in tobacco springs up, as 'baccyrunners' work to supply France's tobacco addicts.


Observation of weather, ecologies and other complex real-world systems leads Ottoman scientist Adnan Gursel to develop the theory of Weather Mathematics [Chaos Theory, developed in the 1960s in the real world].

An earthquake strikes Managua, Nicaragua.

Several hundred people die when a powerful earthquake strikes Neues Hameln in Neuer Hanover [Napier, New Zealand].


Illarionov Luchtvaart suffers from a rash of industrial espionage as companies and governments around the world seek to learn from its revolutionary designs. As this occurs, Illarionov Luchtvaart's lead in the field diminishes.

Seventy thousand people die when an earthquake strikes Gansu, in Long China.

The Third Zulu-Tswana War occurs after skirmishes along the border.


The sale and use of tobacco is banned in the Russian Empire. As in the French case, a network of baccyrunners soon spring up to supply black market tobacco.


Disillusioned with the industrial espionage that has led to his company losing its leading position in the field of aviation, and lack of help from the Dutch government, Gennadiy Innokentiyvitch Illarionov leaves the Netherlands.

Clashes over the routing of coal mine tunnels under Pennsylvania lead to a brief Second Coal War between Columbia and the Union.


First radio programmes are broadcast by the Union. [In the real world this was in 1922.]

The first nerve agents are developed by a team at the University of Istanbul in the OSU for use as insecticides. [In the real world nerve agents were invented in 1935.]

An earthquake in Quetta, India, kills fifty thousand people.


Gennadiy Innokentiyvitch Illarionov settles in Sweden, where he receives a permanent position with the government, and proceeds to advance the Swedish skycraft and other industries.

A Seventh Zulu-Matabele War occurs after skirmishes along the border.

The success of asymmetric skycraft inspires other asymmetric designs and a trend towards asymmetric things in general. This leads to a spread of asymmetric ships, skyships, cars, Cossacks, trains and buildings.


The theory of Quantum Mechanics is formulated by Colombian physicist Timothy Wlodarczyk. [1925 In the real world.]


The first successful kidney transplant is performed by doctors in France. [In the real world 1954]

Territorial disputes and disputes over influence in Germany bring the Union and France to war in central Europe. An incapacitating disease, an airborne germ causing nausea and diarrhoea, is deployed in this war. Again, it spreads further and has a greater effect than expected. Because of it the conflict becomes popularly known as the Faecal War.


The jet engine is invented by Özgür Seyyid in the OSU. [In the real world this was invented in 1930.]


Excessive use of pesticides and other chemicals begins to damage ecosystems around the world. The French government begins to bring in new rules to stop these problems, but other nations do not react so quickly, leading to many problems. [This occurred in the late 1950s in the real world.]


Comet Charrette [De Kock-Parashevopoulos] appears. It is visible to the naked eye, and is mainly a Southern Hemisphere comet. It has a faint twenty degree long tail.


The Faecal War ends in a stalemate, with some minor territorial readjustments.


The first known instance of criminals harvesting the organs of innocent victims to sell to the rich and ill occurs in one of the German states (reports differ as to which one exactly).


The first television broadcasts are transmitted in the Netherlands. [In the real world this took place in 1927.]


King William VI of Britain dies. He is succeeded by his son (born in 1890), who becomes King George V.

The first successful lung transplant takes place in France. [In the real world 1963.]


The first oral contraceptive for women is marketed in the Holy Roman Empire, based on research carried out in France. Although banned in many countries, a brisk illegal trade in it springs up in many of these nations. [In the real world early 1960s.]

The first reliable, if slow, techniques for the manipulation of DNA are developed. [In the real world this occurred in the 1970s.]

Amniocentesis begins to be performed as a pre-natal diagnostic of foetal abnormalities. [In the real world this begin in roughly 1966.] This finds wide application, particularly in the various national eugenics programmes, where it allows 'defective' children to be aborted at an early stage.


First successful liver transplant takes place in the OSU. [In the real world 1967]

A Southern Comet appears, but is only visible from the Southern Hemisphere. It has a tail some twenty-five degrees.

The Theory of Relativity is formulated by French physicist Valérie Cioran. [1925 In the real world.]

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