The Taj Mahal, Copyright 2007 Gerald Brimacombe

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TIMELINE : 1730 TO 1759

The Taj Mahal, Copyright 2007 Gerald Brimacombe

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The anti-protestant French administration, and in particular the Jesuits at the French court attempt to persuade the new King Louis XV to revoke the Edict of Nantes that extends tolerance to French protestants.

Bahadur Nadeem Iqbal returns to the Mughal Empire after nine years of travel and begins writing a book of his experiences.

The Mughal Empire and the Dakshina Nad stop the Omani Civil War by force and present the Omani ulema with a number of potential candidates for Imam.

One hundred and thirty-seven people are killed by an earthquake in Hokkaido, Yapon [Japan].

A number of incidents of anti-European unrest occur in the Mughal Empire, and a number of European émigrés are killed.

European writers on economic affairs begin complaining that "Europe bleedeth to enrich Asia." [This is a quote from the real world, but it applies even more so in this world.]

Abul Khayr, one of the khans of the Lesser Horde of Kazakhs, seeks Russian assistance against the Kalmyk people who are encroaching upon Kazakh territory. Although his intent is only to form a temporary alliance, the Russians use this opportunity to gain permanent control of the Lesser Horde. [This is similar to what happened in the real world.]

India, both the Mughal Empire and the South Indian states, has become even more a net exporter of goods (in particular of cotton and silk cloth which is exported to almost half the world, including East Africa, Arabia, Egypt, Southeast Asia and Europe) and an importer of cash in return (with the only other imports being horses and luxury goods for the upper classes) than they were before the time of Emperor Shah Buland Iqbal [Dara Shikoh]. This arises because the demand for articles supplied by India is so great while the market in India for European goods is very limited, India being largely self-sufficient [much like China, but with a more open government and system in general]. Only specialist European goods and services have a large market in India. The continuing strength of India forces Europe to trade on India's own terms.

There is a definite sense of competition between the European and Indian powers which drives advances in technology and military science. In many cases this only causes the development of things for show, via prestige projects, so that the widespread adoption of these new technologies lags behind. But still, even these drive a general improvement in technology, science and military thinking. As time passes this period becomes known as the Age of Gadgets.

Both the Mughal merchant concerns founded by the Mansabdars under the new system and the existing Hindu merchant houses come to be known as Tayefe Karkhanas. [They are very like the Japanese Zaibatsu ('wealthy clique' or conglomerate) of the real world.] They are, or grow to be, large family-controlled banking and industrial combines, large companies that by the present day consist of divisions of often seemingly unrelated businesses. There are a number of major Tayefe Karkhanas, as well as a larger number of smaller and more specialised Tayefe Karkhanas. Some of the families who founded Tayefe Karkhanas have also grown by the efforts of their non-Hindu and non-Mansabdar members and risen into the ranks of the noble classes.

A period of agricultural development begins in Britain and the rest of Europe and continues into the nineteenth century. It massively increases agricultural productivity and output, and so supports high population growth, which frees up significant percentages of the workforce, and so helps drive the Industrial Revolution [much as in the real world].

Techniques developed in Europe are exported to India, are adapted to local conditions, and quickly spread there, driving the same changes as those occurring in Europe.

As the Mughal Empire industrialises, large shanty towns grow up around the factories, industrial cities and so on as people move from the countryside to the new centres of industry to find work, or better work.

In some cases Mughal industrialists build housing for their workers, but in many cases they do not. In many shanties, and these latter cases particularly, many epidemics occur.

As people move from the countryside to the cities to work, in both Europe and India, they begin spontaneously organising themselves to help protect one another from abuses by their employers and provide help to one another when they require it [much as in the real world].

As the navies of the world complete the process of hunting them down, the Golden Age of Piracy ends.

British traders conducting illegal trade with various Spanish colonies suffer violence at the hands of the Spanish authorities.

A fad for 'Mughalserie' [analogous to Chinoiserie] begins in Europe, competing and mingling with the existing European fad for Chinoiserie.

Responding to the anti-European unrest in the Mughal Empire a minority of European émigrés begin to leave it, taking their skills and knowledge either back to Europe, or to the other states of India. In the process they disseminate knowledge far and wide.


King Louis XV of France, after due consideration, issues a new Edict overriding the Edict of Nantes. This opens Nouvelle-France in North America to Protestantism at the same time as it banishes it in France.

Catherine, granddaughter of James, the Duke of York, gives birth to a son, who is named Christian.

Bahadur Nadeem Iqbal publishes his account of his travels through Russia and Europe, 'Travels In Fifteen Nations'. This quickly becomes something of a best-seller, and copies are disseminated across the world as well as translated into other languages.

Sattareh Teymourtash, a gadget-loving Mughal Mansabdar, has a mechanical calculating machine built to help with his business interests, and simply because he wants one. This is loosely based on the design of the Pascaline from 1645.

With profits falling as the Mughal Empire and the South Indian nations modernise and begin to industrialise, and more and more money flowing out of Europe and into India, the board of the British East India Company in London, acting in ignorance of the true situation in India, decrees that all of its factors shall work to maximise their profits. Regardless. Full stop.

Mughal Emperor Ummid Akhtar decrees an end to the violence between the Sikhs and Hindus over their Gurdwara schools. The Sikhs are allowed to continue educating, but are forbidden from undermining the caste system. The Hindus are obliged to allow them to continue. This ruling satisfies no-one, but generally brings the Hindu-Sikh violence to an end.

The Ottoman Empire negotiates an end to the war with Nadir Shah, ceding much of the Middle East and the Holy Land to him. However, the Ottoman Empire retains control of Jerusalem and most of the Mediterranean coastline.

After long discussion, the Omani ulema selects a candidate for Imam from those presented to them by the Mughal Empire and Dakshina Nad, an individual from the major Ghafiri tribe who is acceptable to the tribal chiefs and people of Oman. With the new Imam in place, the Omani Civil War is declared over, and a new Ghafirid Dynasty begins in Oman.

The British government, determined to continue its drive toward commercial domination of the Atlantic basin, uses the Spanish actions against these British merchants as a pretext for what becomes known as the Caribbean War. [This is analogous to the War of Jenkins' Ear of the real world. Even though the history of this world is quite different to that of the real world by this point, there is still rivalry between England and Spain similar to that in the real world, and having similar effects on events.]

The calculating machine of Sattareh Teymourtash proves to be quite successful, and it is copied, first across the Mughal Empire and then across the world.

French protestants, and Huguenots in particular, begin to move to North America. Others, less willing to move, leave France for the protestant counties of Europe.

As literacy spreads across the Mughal Empire, more and more people of all classes begin taking the Imperial Examinations in the hope of being able to join the privileged Mansabdar class.

At the same time increased education among all castes of the Mughal Empire leads to unrest as those of lower caste see the unfairness of the system as they work to rise up within it.


Often against their better judgement, the local British East India Company factors begin a campaign to ensure that money flows out of the India as well as into it. This includes the use of intimidation and bribery to keep Indians buying British East India Company goods and the money flowing out of India and into the pockets of the British East India Company shareholders. Indian businessmen begin being forced to buy more expensive European goods over local ones, and bad feeling grows. Their complaints at this treatment go unheard, the special status of the British East India Company with the Mughal government, that it has enjoyed since 1615, protecting it. Seeing its success, other European trading companies begin employing the same tactics across all of India.

Traders from the Dakshina Nad found a settlement in the region that becomes known as Mataman [northern Namiba and southern Angola of the real world].

English sea captain Eric Wheatstone, working for the British East India Company, is disgusted at the new company policy and resigns. He is able to find employment in the service of the Mughal Emperor. Over time he comes to love the Mughal Empire.

Perceiving Russia as close enough to them to be of assistance, the Khan of Kokand seeks Russian assistance in the defence of his Khanate. He begins to receive discrete assistance, channelled through the Kazakh lands.

Inspired by the current fashion for Mughalserie a number of women across Europe adopt the wearing of Indian-style trousers. Despite a number of incidents against women doing so, the fashion spreads among the rich of Europe.

A passionate believer in the necessity of sea power, Captain Eric Wheatstone also sees the necessity for the Mughal Empire to have a strong navy of its own. However, the Mughals, descendants of a people who knew nothing of the sea, have had little success in creating one. They have no large fighting vessels, and the ships that they do maintain are primarily for the furtherance of the commercial operations of the state [see here and here]. Captain Wheatstone begins working to persuade the Mughal Empire to construct a decent navy.


The first Russian translation of 'Travels In Fifteen Nations' appears in Moscow. The section on Moscow, and Bahadur Nadeem Iqbal's discoveries regarding the reforms of the Patriarch Nikon, raises a massive controversy, which causes the Tsarina, Catherine I, to order its banning, rather too late.

King Augustus II of Poland dies of old age and is succeeded by his son, who becomes King Augustus III. [With Augustus II having married a different woman to the real world, this Augustus III is a different person to the Augustus III of the real world]

When it becomes clear just how many Huguenots and other protestants there are in France, and how many wish to go to North America, King Louis XV of France is displeased, considering himself to have been misled by his officials. As punishment he forces the officials most responsible to pay the excess costs, bankrupting them and their families.

Despite the ban on 'Travels In Fifteen Nations' imposed by the Tsarina Catherine I, Russian scholars and churchmen, both within and without the Raskolniki, begin examining Russian scripture to prove Bahadur Nadeem Iqbal either wrong or right.

Although the organisation of labour occurs slowly and is usually opposed by the employers and sometimes the local government, as time passes the concept of organised labour spreads around the world. In India this is very much linked to castes, with each labouring caste becoming, effectively, a form of trade union.


Unrest grows and spreads in Poland as King Augustus III begins his rule and he proves to be less able than his father. He is also more friendly towards the Russians than the Polish nobility prefers.

As part of the Caribbean War, British forces attack Spanish holdings in Cuba, Mexico and Central America using their North American colonies, particularly those in Florida, as bases. [This makes the British forces somewhat more effective than was the case in the real world.]

Due to increased competition, the English Royal African Company abandons slaving in favour of trafficking in ivory and gold dust. [This is slightly later than in the real world, where this occurred in 1731, because with a less lucrative trade with India more attempts are made to make more money elsewhere.]

Robert, Prince of Wales, marries Elizabeth Seymour, Baroness Percy.

Despite their best efforts Robert and Elizabeth have no surviving children.


Wishing to stop the endless raids by the Crimean Tatars and gain access to the Black Sea, Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire. What becomes known as the Russo-Ottoman War [or Russo-Turkish War] begins. Shortly before the war begins, seeking to secure their borders with Persia and gain an alliance with them, Russia returns all of the territories it took from Persia in 1724, at the end of the Russo-Persian War, to Persian control. [This is much as happened in the real world.]

Mughal Emperor Ummid Akhtar dies of old age. Because of the smooth succession which took place when Ummid Akhtar came to the Peacock Throne, everyone has complacently expected this succession to go as smoothly. However, as there are several possible successors among the sons of Ummid Akhtar, no clear choice between them, and despite the best efforts of cooler heads in the Mughal government, each of them moves to take the throne for himself, mostly assisted and funded by Hindu and Jain bankers.

The south Indian states bordering the Mughal Empire move to take advantage of the Mughal succession struggle and invade the southern Mughal Empire.

The European trading companies in India, already (since 1732) acting to maximise their profits from trade with India also use the unrest arising from the Mughal succession struggle to increase their activities.

After a long struggle and siege, British forces take control of the city of Cartagena de Indias in northern South America. [Unlike the case in the real world, where they were repelled from the city.]

British forces take control of the isthmus of Panama from the Spanish.

Indian and European warships begin patrolling the waters off southern Africa, each seeking to protect their own shipping and hinder the other.

Russian sailors discover Alyeska [Alaska] and what becomes known as the Bazhenov Strait [Bering Strait] separating it from Asia. [This occurred in 1741 in the real world.]

Russian sailors begin establishing hunting and trading posts in Alyeska to exploit the furs and other resources to be found there. As time passes new trading posts are established further and further south to exploit the resources there.


By now it is clear that Bahadur Nadeem Iqbal was correct in his conclusions. The reforms of the Patriarch Nikon were erroneous. The Raskolniki movement is vastly strengthened by this. Although originally insulted by the use of the term 'Raskolniki', the movement now adopts it as a sign of their opposition to the falsehoods of the establishment Russian Orthodox Church.

A number of battles occur across the Mughal Empire as the sons of Ummid Akhtar struggle for the Mughal Peacock Throne. At the same time battles against the invaders from the southern Indian states also occur.

To prevent Europeans from doing the same, the Mughal Empire takes control of the Seychelles Islands.

British forces take effective control of the Caribbean, sweeping the Spanish from the seas there. [With no War of the Austrian Succession in this world Britain has more forces to devote to the Caribbean theatre.]

Gcaleka, the rightful heir to the overall chief of the Xhosa people, Phalo, dies of smallpox. [Unlike the case in the real world, where rivalry between he and his younger brother, the warrior Rharhabe, led to civil war among the Xhosa and a split of the Xhosa nation, here the Xhosa nation remains a unified entity.]


Henrietta, the daughter of Charles III, marries Prince Philippe of France [a younger brother of the man who becomes King Louis XVI of France who did not exist in the real world]. As part of this she converts to Catholicism.

A Raskolniki uprising occurs in Novgorod, but is brutally crushed by the government. This only drives more people into the Raskolniki fold.

Austria joins the Russo-Ottoman War [Russo-Turkish War] on the Russian side.

At the battle of Amber, the last surviving sons of Mughal Emperor Ummid Akhtar meet in battle, and Suleiman Tabar, the second son of Ummid Akhtar defeats and kills his older brother, leaving his way to the Peacock Throne open.

With the Mughal succession struggle finally over, Suleiman Tabar ascends to the Mughal Peacock Throne.

The protests of the merchants of the Kingdom of Maratha reach the ears of the King. He quickly acts to stop this behaviour and expel the British East India Company factors. He also sends an accusatory note to the new Mughal Emperor, demanding that he ceases sanctioning this underhanded activity.

The unpopular King Augustus III of Poland is toppled by the Polish-Lithuanian nobility in the brief War of the Polish Succession [which is not the same as that in the real world]. The nobility wish a return to the old days of elected kings and the Golden Liberty. Augustus flees into exile in Saxony, of which he is also King, and what becomes known as the Second Polish-Lithuanian Republic is established.

The Spanish government sues for peace to end the Caribbean War. This is agreed in the Treaty of Lisbon. As part of the treaty agreement, Britain takes control of the poor Spanish-controlled island of Cuba.

The Dakshina Nad sets up small naval bases in Malagasia, Mataman, Ghobararazi and Giâhrarazi to protect its merchants and shipping.

Three thousand people die in an earthquake in Kolkatta [Calcutta], in the Mughal Empire.

A powerful earthquake strikes Kamchatka, in the Russian Far East.

The bright comet Gandharva [Bradley] is seen for several weeks.


It becomes clear that Poland is quickly stagnating into the same political paralysis as it suffered from before Augustus II imposed a hereditary monarchy on the country, arising from fundamental problems with the old system, particularly the Liberum Veto. Despite attempts to solve this problem by some of the deputies of the Polish-Lithuanian parliament, the problems themselves prevent their being solved from within the system.

Henrietta, the daughter of Charles III of England, bears a son with Prince Philippe of France.

An uprising by Cambodian groups wishing to regain their independence and preserve their culture and way of life against Dai Ngu attempts to replace it with their own begins in the old Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh and quickly spreads across the Cambodian region of Dai Ngu. [This is slightly earlier than in the real world.]

With the end of the succession struggle that has placed Suleiman Tabar on the Peacock Throne, he, on the advice of most of his government, and based on his own opinions of how the recent succession struggle that brought him to the throne was a very real danger to the Empire, puts in place new laws that define the succession to the throne of the Mughal Empire, derived from the systems in use in most European nations. These also include inputs from the Hindu and Jain bankers who have, in the past, funded the succession struggles.

The note from the Maratha King is the first that the Mughal Emperor Suleiman Tabar has heard of the underhanded activities of the European factors of the various East India Companies. Investigations quickly prove the truth and accuracy of the reports and the Mughal Emperor moves to stop the war between the Mughal Empire and the Dakshina Nad so that they can all join together to stop the European companies pillaging India.

Suleiman Tabar revokes the permissions of the European trading companies to trade in India and the agreements previously made with the European nations they represent. The European companies, seeing their profits and livelihoods at risk, resist all attempts to disband or expel them, without consideration of whether they are Mughals or from one of the other Indian states, turning all of India against them. As the fighting between the Mughal Empire and the Dakshina Nad peters out, fighting breaks out in cities across India where European companies are sited, in both the Mughal Empire and in the Dakshina Nad. What becomes known as the Factory War begins.

The Dai Ngu government suppresses the Cambodian uprising.

British colonists begin arriving in Cuba, many of them founding lucrative sugar plantations.

[With the Mughal Empire remaining strong, it is not invaded by the Persian ruler Nadir Shah in this year. Because of this the Mughal Peacock Throne remains in Delhi.]

The new Mughal succession laws prove to be successful as succeeding successions in general go far more smoothly than those before them.

Significant numbers of European company employees who think that the Factory War is a bad idea desert to the Mughal Empire or the Dakshina Nad rather than fight for their company.

As part of the Factory War, ships from the Mughal and Dakshina Nad settlements in Malagasia harass European shipping travelling to and from India.


Emperor Suleiman Tabar introduces a number of reforms to the Mughal inheritance system. Primary amongst these is decoupling of the inheritance of property and position, so that inheriting one does not imply inheriting the other.

Proving that their influence is deep and far-reaching, an attempted (unsuccessful) coup against the Mughal Emperor is proved to be sponsored by the British East India Company.

As the advantages given to the European trading companies by their strong navies become clear, Captain Eric Wheatstone manages to persuade Emperor Suleiman Tabar of the necessity of a navy. He is authorised to build a small fleet of experimental ships, based on European designs. Construction begins at the port of Haldia.

The British East India Company begins building Puckle Guns, based on those possessed by their enemies.

As part of the Factory War, Denmark loses its Indian colony of Tranquebar to the forces of the Kanyakumari Pact.

In France, Anacharsis Masséna Invents the first chemical battery, capable of producing a far greater current than by electrostatic means [in the real world this was discovered by Luigi Galvani in 1786].

[Because Charles VI, the Holy Roman Emperor, has a son, Leopold Christopher, as his heir rather than a daughter, Maria Theresa, there is no War of the Austrian Succession and Austria is not forced to withdraw from the Russo-Turkish war in 1739 when Charles VI dies as was the case in the real world.]


Austria defeats the Ottoman Empire in battle and takes control of Moldavia, Walachia and the mouths of the Danube.

A Raskolniki uprising occurs in Yekaterinburg and takes control of a large area of Russia.

The first large scale use of rocket artillery, against the forces of the British East India Company, occurs as part of the Factory War.

Also as part of the Factory War, both the Mughal Empire and Kanyakumari Pact begin encouraging and supporting the nations of south-east Asia in which European powers have trading posts and colonies to throw out the Europeans.

As the Factory War continues, the Mughal Empire, like the Dakshina Nad, sets up small naval bases in Malagasia, Ghobararazi and Giâhrarazi.

With clear defeat looming, the Samoothiri of Kozhikode kills all of his female relatives in a massive gunpowder explosion while he and his male relatives make a last desperate charge at the invading forces of the French East India Company. They are all killed. [There are examples of this sort of behaviour from the real world, for example in Thanjavur at the end of the Thanjavur Nayak dynasty .]

With their ruler and his closest associates killed, the defence of Kozhikode collapses. Kozhikode quickly surrenders to the European invaders.

A number of the surviving minor nobles of Kozhikode are installed as puppet rulers by the Europeans. They have no choice but to cooperate, willingly or otherwise, with the looting of their country.

A group of Polish-Lithuanian deputies, seeing the threat that the continuing paralysis of the government poses to the Second Polish-Lithuanian Republic, gains the support of the King and imposes changes to the Commonwealth's political system to eliminate some of these problems. Although these have to be imposed by force, in what amounts to a coup d'etat, they are imposed. The government of the Polish-Lithuanian Republic becomes a much more effective instrument, and one much more suited to the long-term survival of the Polish-Lithuanian state. Among these changes the Liberum Veto is heavily modified, and it is directed that monarchs can only be elected from within the Polish-Lithuanian population (or at least from among its nobility). The Third Polish-Lithuanian Republic is declared.

Charles VI, the Holy Roman Emperor, dies. He is succeeded by his son, who becomes Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II [and as a male heir averts the War of the Austrian Succession of the real world].

After a number of instances of the Mughal Empire and Kanyakumari Pact funding opposing forces in south-east Asia, they agree to present a joint front and joint funding, with no intention of taking the territory for themselves later. This is because each side does not want the other doing so unilaterally, as they believe the other will simply take that area for themselves.

Dutch traders establish a settlement on the island of Van Diemens Land [Tasmania] off the southern coast of Marege [Australia].

Merchants from the Mughal Empire establish a harbour and supply station in west Africa. This is accompanied by a small Mughal Naval base there. This comes to be known as Jangalarazi (Forest Land).

Nadir Shah conquers the Khanate of Bukhara.

The Mughal Durbar decrees that the practise of sati, the custom of widows, particularly those of the higher classes, to immolate themselves on the funeral pyres of their husbands, be banned.

Ottoman swordsmith Asalah Zureiq emigrates to the Mughal Empire, bringing with him the secret of making Damascus steel. [Thus the techniques for doing so are not lost as they were in the real world.]

The attempt to eliminate sati is the latest in a long line of attempts by the Mughals to eliminate it. Instances of it do continue to occur, though the rate gradually drops over time. Despite this other Indian states continue the custom.

[Without the War of the Austrian Succession, Prussia does not come to include Silesia.]


Robert, Prince of Wales, dies in a riding accident. When his father, Charles III, is informed of this the shock of the news causes him to collapse with a stroke. Three days later he dies at the age of seventy-one.

This leads to the immediate possibility that the British throne will pass to Henrietta, the daughter of Charles III, and Prince Philippe of France, both of whom are Catholics and who have a Catholic son. Many of the British Parliament and people are very unhappy at the possibility that a French Catholic is first in line for the British throne. However, she also has a good deal of British support.

Wanting a Protestant to take the throne, Parliament sends representatives to the second-best candidate (in a purely legal sense), Catherine, granddaughter of James, the Duke of York, and her husband Frederick of Denmark, and offer them the throne instead. They accept this offer.

With the crisis escalating, a Convention Parliament is called, at which Henrietta and Philippe are barred from the throne and Catherine and Frederick accepted. However, this motion is only passed by a slim majority, and the losers storm out.

Henrietta and Philippe arrive from France before Frederick and Catherine, due to the shorter distance involved. The supporters of Henrietta attempt to have her crowned in Westminster Abbey, with the reluctant, forced, blessing of the Archbishop of Canterbury. However, huge mobs of anti-Catholic demonstrators form around the Abbey. These clash with Catholic mobs who also gather at the cathedral and matters quickly degenerate into what become known as the Coronation Riots. Many rioters are killed, mostly by the bodyguards of Henrietta and Philippe who use deadly force to get them away safely.

As news spreads violence and civil unrest begins to spread across Britain. Depending on the location, this is against the supporters of Catherine or against those of Henrietta. Private armies begin to be raised, to defend themselves, or to attack.

The Archbishop of Canterbury flees Britain ahead of the rioters, narrowly avoiding several lynch mobs between London and the coast where he takes ship out of England.

With the arrival of Catherine and Frederick, their rather subdued coronation takes place in Westminster Abbey, presided over by the new Archbishop of Canterbury, the pervious one having been removed from his position. A pro-Henrietta riot, rather smaller than the Coronation Riots, occurs outside the Cathedral as this takes place, and when Catherine and Frederick leave the Abbey shots are fired. Frederick is hit and badly wounded.

Henrietta flees from Britain into Scotland, where her support is strongest. The former Archbishop of Canterbury crowns them in Edinburgh Cathedral. However, no-one on the pro-Catherine side accepts the legitimacy of this coronation.

With both sides having reached a stalemate, the Treaty of Nissa ends the Russo-Ottoman War [Russo-Turkish War]. The Austrians remain in control of the mouths of the Danube, while Russia has to give up its claims to Crimea and Moldavia, and is prohibited from having any fleet in the Black Sea. [This is somewhat later than it ended in the real world, and with a somewhat different outcome.]

The first ship of the new Mughal navy, the 'Babur', is launched at Haldia. Although there are some teething problems, the ship and its sisters is highly successful.

A Malay uprising throws the Dutch out of Melaka.

More than a thousand people die in a tsunami caused by the eruption of Mount Oshima in Yapon [Japan].

French explorers sailing from South America discover and claim what proves to be the eastern coast of the continent of Marege [Australia]. They name this new land France Australis.

Despite a long blockade, British Naval vessels fail to expel the Mughal Empire from its settlement of Jangalarazi [in West Africa].

The Russians are not pleased to see the Austrians at the mouths of the Danube, but can do little to remove them at this time.

With the creation of navies by the Mughal Empire and Dakshina Nad, there are protests by Hindus at the breaking of the Kala Pani, the Indian taboo of the sea, that considers that the leaving of the mainland means confronting 'houglis' [monsters] and also ends the reincarnation cycle for the traveller as they become cut off from the regenerating waters of the River Ganges [see here for more details].

In response to this Mughal Emperor Suleiman Tabar decrees that no Hindu must serve in the Mughal Navy.

Despite this, lower caste Hindus do come to serve on Mughal and other ships as the needs of money in order to survive overcome their religious qualms. Some Hindu priests, responding to needs of these Hindus, discretely devise a number of ways of allowing them to sail without cutting themselves off from the River Ganges. These generally consist of the sailor carrying a vial of water from the Ganges, something that maintains their link to the river and so the cycle of reincarnation. [This is not unlike the case in the real world where the British placed water from the Ganges in large cauldrons on the ships to similarly ensure the continuity of reincarnation beyond the Kala Pani, making the sea voyage less fearsome.]

It also does not prevent Hindu merchants from funding and profiting by maritime trade, even if they do not themselves sail...


Each side in the English succession dispute assembles its forces to restore what they see as 'the Right'. Clashes inevitably occur between them. Then a major battle at York. This spreads elsewhere, and Civil War breaks out. This becomes known as the War of the English Succession or the Second Civil War.

After a long illness, King Frederick of England eventually recovers from his gunshot wound, but his right arm has to be amputated.

After the success of the 'Babur' and its sister ships against the Europeans, several of the South Indian states also begin building ships along European lines, often with the help of European expatriates.

The Russian army finally retakes Yekaterinburg from the Raskolniki forces that have controlled it since 1740. Many thousands of those living in the area die, whether they were part of the uprising or not. Again, this suppression drives more people into the arms of the Raskolniki movement.

Spain joins the War of the English Succession, supporting the claim of Henrietta.

Mughal scientist Mirza Iskander Qureshi, while experimenting with an electrical battery, notes that an electrical discharge affects a nearby compass. He proposes a link between electricity and magnetism. [In the real world this occurred in 1820.]

The Sultanate of Johor takes control of Melaka, which is now free of Dutch control.

As news of the War of the English Succession reaches North America there are a number of clashes along the borders between the English, Spanish and French colonies there.

Dakshina Nad and Mughal Empire naval vessels bombard European settlements along the West African coast.

Despite their best efforts a combined European naval force fails to expel all Indian shipping and settlers from Giâhrarazi [in the east of southern Africa].

French astronomer Pierre Dupleix discovers a new planet, the seventh, which he names Tethys [Uranus, discovered in 1781 in the real world].


After long months of fighting the forces of Queen Catherine of England prove to be able to fight in a more civilised manner, and to have more resources and better generals on their side, despite the assistance of France on the side of Henrietta. They gain more public support, with some help from the Danes, especially after the injury of Frederick. The pro-Henrietta side retain their power in Scotland, with aid from France.

Tsarina Catherine I of Russia dies [in the real world this happened in 1727, when she was 43]. She is succeeded by the daughter of Peter the Great, who becomes Empress Elizabeth I. [Thus there is no Peter II, Anna I, Anna II and Ivan VI.]

With no brothers or other appropriate relatives, Sheila Nayyar becomes the first woman to inherit the position of Mansabdar and its associated property from her father.

An uprising throws the Dutch out of Jawa [Java].

European traders find their activities greatly curtailed in Ayutthaya and Dai Ngu, with their influence now limited to trade alone.

English explorers establish a settlement on the north-eastern coast of Marege [Australia], which their Irish-descended captain names Nova Hibernia [New Ireland].

Spanish forces besiege English-controlled Gibraltar. In North America other Spanish forces invade the formerly-Spanish territory of Florida.

The long drawn out siege of Ummidabad [Walvis Bay, Namibia] fails to unseat the Mughal Empire from its settlement of Ghobararazi [in the west of southern Africa].

In the Indian-controlled regions of Marege there is no attempt to eradicate the culture of the natives. The natives are less well-treated in the European-controlled regions, leading to many natives fleeing into the Indian-controlled regions, especially once some natives become friendly with the Indians. This causes friction between different native groups.


Assisted by treachery from within, Spain takes control of the rock of Gibraltar from England.

The War of the English Succession reaches a stalemate, with Catherine and Frederick having control of England, Wales and Ireland, with Henrietta and Philippe, backed by France, having control of Scotland. The financial troubles caused to Britain by the continuing Factory War in India do not help in this. A truce is agreed, and in the Treaty of Lancaster, the union of England and Scotland is dissolved, and the two nations become separate states once again. Henrietta and Philippe become Queen and King of Scotland under the Stuart Dynasty; Catherine and Frederick remain monarchs of England, Wales and Ireland under the new Oldenburg Dynasty. [With no 1707 Act of Union, England and Scotland have retained their own separate parliaments.]

As part of the Treaty of Lancaster, Spain returns control of Florida to England.

In Europe, numerous people with Indian links, and various Indian businessmen are killed, beaten or hounded by mobs as part of general public feeling against the Indian nations for being against them in the Factory War.

Mughal scientist Mirza Iskander Qureshi invents the first primitive electric motor [considerably earlier than in the real world, where it was invented by Michael Faraday in 1821]. His viewpoint, unencumbered by European ideas of electricity and magnetism as utterly separate and distinct substances which cannot be transformed from one to the other, allows him to develop this before European scientists. [This is not unlike the situation described in this article from New Scientist magazine.]

The last European-run enclave in the Mughal Empire is conquered, with great losses as the retreating Europeans pillage what they can as they go. The European factors controlling it are executed or expelled.

Although she proves a competent enough person, Sheila Nayyar is disinherited by other jealous Mansabdars from her area.

The members of the Kanyakumari Pact unify their currencies into one, to ease trade between them, forming what becomes known as the Kanyakumari Rupee. This remains distinct from the Mughal Rupee, however. With the unification of the currencies of the Dakshina Nad also comes a law permitting the free movement of labour within the Kanyakumari Pact.

An uprising expels the Dutch from the island of Samudra [Sumatra].

The Mughal Empire takes control of the Mascarene Islands from France.

The Dakshina Nad takes control of the Chagos Islands.

A combined Dakshina Nad-Mughal Empire force bombards Dutch Cape Town and badly damages the port there as part of a prolonged siege.

A bright comet is seen for several weeks.

Over time the new labour movement law in the Dakshina Nad acts to eliminate the worst excesses of the governments of its states as people begin to vote with their feet. By the present day many of the states have, out of self-interest, evolved into enlightened absolute monarchies.

Scotland receives an influx of pro-Henrietta Protestants and others who supported her for non-religious reasons. Thus Scotland, although it does suffer some religious tensions, does become reasonably tolerant. England, on the other hand, becomes very staunchly Protestant, with laws defining religious practise and belief being enacted. And so it becomes a more absolutist state than Scotland.

There is significant Danish immigration into England. Some Danish nobles are appointed to British seats left or made empty after the War of the English Succession. This causes some unrest, but care on the part of Catherine and Frederick, and a general wish to avoid further violence, avoids any significant trouble over this.

Many English Christians who are not willing to conform to the new official religious line, in particular Puritans, emigrate. Some go to Scotland. Many more go to the New World and join the long-standing Puritan settlements there. This leads to a significant Puritan population in North America.

Without Scotland England loses the Scottish engineering talent that was so useful to it in the real world, while Scotland gains it. A smaller group of Welsh and Irish engineers replace some of these, but not all of them.

Rivalry between Britain and Scotland drives an Industrial Revolution in both nations, helped, for Scotland, by foreign aid from the French. However, both of their economies are also hindered as they each have to defend against the another.

Using significant amounts of the money imported to Scotland by those who flee there, Scottish bankers become a major source of income for the new nation.

In addition to this, many Scots seeking to make money go to work abroad, sending money home and returning themselves after making their fortunes. Scots engineers in particular make good money in India, in the process greatly assisting Indian industrialisation.

Many other Scots go to French colonies in North America and elsewhere around the world and greatly assist in their development while others, almost exclusively Catholics, go to France itself.

As a result of the clashes with France and Spain during the War of the English Succession, the English colonists in North America become considerably more paranoid, militarised and defensive than they were before. They look toward England for continued protection.

Both sides begin construction of defensive fortifications along their borders with one another.

As both Dutch and Indian settlers begin to arrive in southern Africa, they inevitably encroach on the lands of the Xhosa people. Conflict and skirmishes between both sides occur, though more so with the Dutch who herd more cattle than the (often Hindu) Indians of the Mughal Empire.

Electrical technology gradually develops from this point on. However, because of the lack of a theoretical grounding to explain electromagnetism at this point, for quite some time it evolves in a gradual and erratic fashion, as an empirical engineering discipline rather than a true science.


A combined European naval task force attacks Indian settlements all around the coast of Malagasia [Madagascar], damaging them severely.

The last European-run enclave in the South Indian states, in the Kingdom of Kozhikode, is conquered by an alliance of its neighbours, and the European factors controlling it executed or expelled. Again, European pillaging causes great losses as they retreat. With the defeat of the European occupiers of Kozhikode, some of the minor nobles who have been their puppet rulers of the country flee with them overseas. Others attempt to remain behind, but are all killed, along with their families, by vengeful mobs. With this, the Factory War ends.

With Scotland gaining its independence from England the Scots colonists of East Jersey (in New Jersey) attempt to gain their freedom from England and join with the new Scotland. However, the British forces in New Jersey are too strong for them and they are defeated, leading to much persecution. Many flee into the west of America, leading to a significant Scottish presence in French Canada and Louisiana, which is helped by the French and Scots getting on well during the War of the English Succession.

Rumours not entirely based in fact spread back to France from North America that, because of the French crown's helping Protestants, particularly Huguenots, to emigrate the New World, they are doing well there. Unrest spreads across France at this 'unfair bias towards Protestants'; others also want a government-subsided chance to go and make their fortunes in New France. The French Crown has no choice but to subsidise the emigration of non-Huguenots to North America.

Persian Emperor Nadir Shah is assassinated [much as in the real world]. As his followers all seek to take the throne for themselves, the Persian Empire falls apart into a succession struggle.

The Russian and Ottoman Empires take advantage of this to take and reclaim land from Persia respectively.

Due to its close links to France and a desire to separate itself from England, Scotland adopts the Gregorian calendar, which has been in use in the Catholic world since 1582. England remains on the older Julian calendar.

As part of the English suppression of the Scots in the New World, other religious minorities there are also persecuted. This includes the Puritans.

Many Puritans begin what becomes known as the Second Exodus into the west of North America, seeking new lives free of persecution. However, the Catholic French do not welcome them with open arms, and many of them travel on further west.

Many of those who follow the Huguenots to New France to make their fortunes find that the rumours exaggerate the fortunes of those who went there before them, and that the success of some Huguenots is due to their having a strong work ethic, rather than Crown subsidy. Because of this many of the new emigrants have a hard time starting their new lives. However, they cannot go back and so have to make the best of the opportunities they have been given in New France.

The fact that more French emigrants travel to French North America leads to the Anglo-Danish colonies on the east coast being more constrained. This results in fewer calls for independence as the inhabitants feel that they still require protection against the French.

With increased emigration from France to the New World, in the late eighteenth century the French countryside suffers much less of the overpopulation in terms of agricultural yield per capita that it did in the real world. This, combined with better harvests and more advanced technology, removes the trigger for a French Revolution of the kind that occurred in the real world.

Following the Factory War, and stinging from the damage it caused, the European trading companies seek new sources of income elsewhere in the world. Existing colonies are expanded and re-vitalised. Abandoned colonies are re-visited, re-investigated and re-settled. New ones are investigated and invested in with renewed vigour.

With no Indian colonies Britain and France have little choice but to compete more in America and Africa. In most places this colonisation of South America begins as small trading posts and grows out from there. Without the British takeover of India England and France remain roughly equivalent.

Among the Europe nations, the taking and holding of colonies in far-off places becomes a matter of national pride and prestige. Many nations declare that they shall never allow themselves to lose a colony again, regardless of the cost.

As the vast majority of European trade with China goes through south-east Asia and the Mughal Empire, who both profit from the trade by being acting as middle-men, Chinese goods in Europe become more expensive than they were in the real world at a similar time. This combined with general anti-Indian feeling in Europe leads to the end of the Mughalserie fad and there being less of a craze for Chinoiserie than in the real world. [This affects later European stylistic trends, such as the Rococo.]

Less trade with China leads to less European money flowing into China and thus less 'need' for measures such as the Opium Wars to break into the Chinese markets; the failure of a similar attempt in India during the Factory War also prevents such an attempt in China.

Although the Factory War has caused a European backlash against the use of spices, many Europeans and others still want them, so the trade continues. However, the price of spices in Europe rises significantly.

The fall of the Persian Empire to the succession struggle after the death of Nadir Shah partly inspires (further) reforms of the system of succession in the Mughal Empire.

Another side-effect of the Factory War is that most Hindus now consider Europeans to be unambiguously of the Untouchable caste. [In the real world the position of Europeans in the caste system is ambiguous; in this world events have made it considerably less so.]

The Factory War soon comes to be referred to by some scholars as the 'rousing of the giant that is India', against the irritation of the European powers who were attempting to exploit the sub-continent.

Despite the official end of the Factory War, 'accidental' skirmishes between European and Indian shipping, as well as between Mughal and Dakshina Nad shipping occur up and down the West African coast for years after this time.

As part of its response to the outcome of the Factory War Portugal begins to cement its claim to and control of Sierra Leone in west Africa.

English forces begin to expand and consolidate the colony of Gambia in West Africa.

Despite retaking the territory it lost to Persia, the Ottoman Empire remains weakened from the effects of fighting the Persians and the Europeans.


In Europe, the expulsion of European factors from India causes a great crisis in the relevant countries. The French East India Company goes bankrupt.

There is further violence against Indian interests in Europe.

The Mughal Empire decrees that European merchants, though unpopular, are still welcome in the Mughal Empire, can still trade in the Empire, will be provided ample protection and security for any transactions, and will be levied a low custom duty, but cannot establish factories in the way that they did before, will be not be permitted to set themselves up as rulers of their own areas of the country, and European law will not apply in them. The Dakshina Nad issues a similar decree.

Reports that the Mughal Empire is taking advantage of its armies assembled for the Factory War and assembling troops on Sinhale ready for an invasion of South India cause alarm across the Kanyakumari Pact.

With all of the traditional power structure of Kozhikode destroyed, as Kozhikode recovers from the Factory War various merchants, bankers, generals and religious leader claim the right to rule the country. With no one leader accepted by all, civil war quickly breaks out.

The English and Scottish governments each begin fortifying the Anglo-Scottish border. The Scots use the ruins of Hadrian's Wall as a basis for these in many places.

With the end of the Factory War, the Mughal Empire re-builds and expands its settlements at Jangalarazi and Giâhrarazi, while the Dakshina Nad re-establishes its settlement in Giâhrarazi. The Indian settlements in Malagasia are also rebuilt.

As a reaction against the outcome of the Factory War, women across Europe stop wearing trousers.

Because of the more numerous scientists and other natural philosophers in India and the tropical regions of the world, there is a significantly greater concentration on tropical medicine in the Mughal Empire and Dakshina Nad than was the case in the real world. Because of this treatments and cures for more tropical diseases are found earlier than in the real world, facilitating the colonisation of the tropics by Europeans and Indians.


Kanyakumari Pact ships work to blockade Sinhale, then land troops on the island. At the same time a Pact force drives up the east coast of India seeking to take control of the ports the Mughal Empire is using to ship troops to Sinhale. Ships from both sides harass each other, and also attack targets on the Indian coast. [This all helps to lead to the development of Indian navies.]

Parveen Sarabhai becomes the second woman to inherit the Mansabdar position and property from her father. Rather more cunning than her predecessor, Sheila Nayyar (who inherited her post in 1743), she manages to retain both of these things in her own right.

Puckle Gun-equipped troops from the Maratha Kingdom prove highly effective against the Mughals. Other nations, including the Mughals, begin copying the design.

The boards of the surviving European East India companies affected by the Factory War hold a summit meeting in London. The re-taking of their Indian holdings by force is discussed, and rejected. Instead the companies turn their eyes elsewhere in the world, and begin making plans to acquire profitable territories outside India.

As the Kozhikode civil war continues the other nations of the Kanyakumari Pact send troops to protect the city of Kanyakumari itself, which lies entirely within the territory of Kozhikode. They also send emissaries to try and end the civil war, but to no avail.

Representatives of the people of the Maldive Islands request help in removing the Dutch from control of their islands.

In the Chaos surrounding the death of Nadir Shah, Turkmenistan invades and takes control of the territory of the former Khanate of Bukhara.

English settlers begin encroaching on French lands to the west of New England.


Kanyakumari Pact forces push north along the east coast of India, taking control of significant amount of territory. At the same time, Pact forces in Sinhale also push the Mughals back.

Kanyakumari Pact and Mughal forces meet in battle at Assaye, and a stalemate ensues as both sides fail to gain an advantage.

A Raskolniki uprising occurs in the city of Kazan, but is brutally crushed by the government. As with earlier uprisings this only drives more people into the Raskolniki fold. However, the Raskolniki remain a group that rejects mainstream Russian society, and has many factions.

The English Royal African Company is taken over by the British East India Company, and used as a basis for its new commercial operations in Africa.

Russian explorers and surveyors enter the Mughal Empire from the north. They are welcomed as guests.

Tibetan factions rebel and kill the Chinese resident commissioner there [slightly earlier than in the real world, where this occurred in 1750]. The Tibetan rebels are defeated by a Chinese army who then install an administration headed by the Dalai Lama.

With the end of the Factory War, Portugal can no longer sustain its settlement at Macau, in China, and abandons it, although some Portuguese remain behind.

English settlers and merchants begin expanding the English colony of Guiana in South America.

By now the Raskolniki are almost a majority of the Russian population. They are made up of those who are convinced that the official Orthodox Church, and thus the Tsarina, are ruling them based on a lie. While there is little active unrest, passive unrest and non-cooperation with the forces of the crown is widespread.

As part of the Indian War, the navy of each side conducts a number of attacks on the African settlements of the other.


Cut off from the rest of the Mughal Empire, the Mughal forces in Sinhale surrender to those of the Kanyakumari Pact.

A Mughal army attempts to strike across the rear of the Pact army on the east coast and cut it off. However, this strike fails. A simultaneous strike against the Maratha Kingdom on the west coast is also repulsed, and the Marathas take advantage of this to advance north and west, taking territory as they go. The training of their troops in the use of the Puckle Gun greatly helps them in this.

English doctor Frederick Warton develops the safer technique of vaccination, derived from inoculation, and uses it to begin to control smallpox instead of inoculation. [This is much earlier than in the real world, where vaccination was invented by Edward Jenner in 1796.]

Dakshina Nad forces expel the Dutch from the Maldive Islands. The new rulers of the Maldives sign the Kanyakumari Pact and become part of the Dakshina Nad.

The chaos in Persia following the death of Nadir Shah comes to an end as the chief of the Dehbokri tribe of Kurds [see also here] takes control of the Persian Empire [replacing the Zand Dynasty of the real world]. He installs a minor prince of the Safavid Dynasty as a puppet ruler under the name of Ismail III [much as the Zands did].

England begins expanding its colony in Guyana, increasing the amount of land devoted to growing sugar cane there.

French soldiers expel the encroaching English settlers from their lands in North America.

Due to its losses in the Factory War, the Dutch East India Company goes bankrupt.

The first formal agreement between Mughal traders and the Xhosa people is signed. The Mughals begin supplying the Xhosa with weapons and other useful items in return for food and minerals.

Scottish attempts to re-found their colony at Darién on the Isthmus of Panama are rebuffed by the English, who control this region.


With the Mughal armies making no headway against the forces of the Kanyakumari Pact, and unrest spreading in the Mughal Empire at the damage and costs involved, the Mughal Empire opens negotiations with the Pact to end the Indian War.

Taking advantage of the disruption caused by the Indian War, the British East India Company attempts to land troops on Sinhale and take the island over, but are met with fierce local resistance.

A new leader of the Raskolniki of Russia, Aristarkh Fedorovich Venetsianov, begins to preach militarization as the only way for the Raskolniki - and the true beliefs to which they adhere - to survive.

Dakshina Nad traders also sign an agreement with the Xhosa, much as the Mughal Empire did in the previous year.

The leading members of the Jadid Mu'tazili movement persuade the Emperor to allow them to set up the Imperial House of the Sciences. [This is the Mughal equivalent of the British Royal Society, which was established in 1660.]

The first widely-used revolver pistol is marketed by Dilip Gadkari in the Maratha Kingdom. It is based on the design of the Puckle Gun, and uses a charge of powder and a bullet in a paper tube, with the powder being ignited by a flintlock. It becomes known as the Puckle Pistol, or simply the Puckle.

European traders manage to smuggle the seeds of various spices out of Asia and back to their home countries. Grown in the tropical colonies of the European powers, many of the Asian spices successfully establish themselves outside Asia. As these new sources of spices begin to reach the markets of the world, the price of many kinds of spices drops significantly. [This is much as in the real world.]

Mysore within the Dakshina Nad takes control of the Lakshadweep Islands to prevent the Mughal Empire doing the same.

The Trinh rulers of northern Dai Ngu [Vietnam] sign treaties with China to gain assistance in their ruling of the country. Chinese military advisors and troops begin assisting the Trinh.

Because of the refugees it took in at the end of the War of the English Succession, Scotland becomes the first European nation to enshrine full religious freedom in law.

English merchants begin expanding the English settlement of Port Desire in Patagonia, seeking new trade opportunities there.

The New England government demands that their colonists be allowed to settle on the French lands from which they were expelled. This demand is rejected. In response, more English settlers, escorted by soldiers, cross the border into French territory.

As part of their attempts to build support for the new English regime, the new King and Queen fund the creation of a new Oldenburg College at each of the great universities of Oxford and Cambridge.

As time goes by the trade between the Xhosa and the Indians expands, with Indians helping the Xhosa set up industries and generally begin to raise themselves to the level of Europe and India.

During this time a number of significant improvements in agricultural techniques, leading to a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output spread across Europe, and to larger populations in the European nations that adopt them. This becomes known as the agricultural revolution.

In time this revolution and techniques derived from it also spreads to Asia, and India in particular, leading to improved productivity and larger populations there, also.

A side effect of these improvements in agricultural productivity is the freeing of people from the land, allowing them to move to the cities and provide labour for the burgeoning industries located there.


The Ottoman Empire takes advantage of the poor state of Russia to invade.

The last British East India Company troops are expelled from Sinhale.

With a basis in Sikh Ideology, Gurbax Singh Saund, the third Sikh member of the Mughal Durbar successfully introduces a system of universal education across the entire Mughal Empire for everyone, against the opposition of the Hindu community. Based on the Dars-i-Faridiya curriculum of 1702 it provides pupils with a basic knowledge of grammar, rhetoric, philosophy, logic, scholasticism, religious studies (covering all the major religions of the Mughal Empire), mathematics, history and natural sciences.

Gangotri Mohan Sharma becomes the first woman to be selected as a member of the Mughal Durbar.

After long negotiations, the Treaty of Kandy is signed. This ends the Indian War and returns Sinhale to the control of the Kingdom of Kandy. The losses of the Mughal Empire are acknowledged, and the Kanyakumari Pact gains all of the territory it has taken, including, for the Marathas, the former states of Berar and Bidar. The Mughals are very unhappy at this result, but given the defeats they suffered have little choice but to accept them.

The Mughal Empire takes control of the Andaman Islands to prevent the Dakshina Nad doing the same.

An attempt by the Dai Ngu government to take more Cambodian territory and further impose their culture across all of Dai Ngu sparks a Cambodian uprising. [This occurred in 1755 in the real world.]

In the neighbouring nations of Mysore and Thanjavur, elements of the governments begin talking of invading Kozhikode to end the civil war and restore order, by dividing the country between them.

French and New England troops clash on French land in North America. With neither side willing to give up their claims, war is declared. What becomes known as the New England War begins. [This is roughly equivalent to the French and Indian War of the real world, but rather earlier due to increased French colonisation of North America.]


Some of the Puritans of the Second Exodus reach the Pacific Ocean, an area free of French influence, and begin construction of a new settlement there, which they name Deliverance [on the site of Seattle in the real world]. As news of this settlement spreads, other Puritans join them. The local natives are either converted to Christianity or driven away, as are other non-Puritans who attempt to settle in the area.

Mughal inventor Tanushree Kant Sahay develops a machine for automatically spinning cotton and other fibres into thread [equivalent to the Spinning Jenny], greatly increasing the amount of thread that can be produced in a day. [This was invented in 1769 in the real world.]

In the Mughal Empire, following on from the experiences of the recent wars, there are some reorganisations in the government:

Scotsman Basil MacGillivray invents the first clock accurate enough to allow the accurate measurement of longitude, and so to be used for accurate navigation at sea and elsewhere. [This is earlier than in the real world, where this was invented by John Harrison in 1761.]

As news of developments in Mysore and Thanjavur reaches Kozhikode, the Civil War there slows as the warlords of Kozhikode look to their defences from external as well as internal threats, but it does not stop.

Again using its previous claims to lands it has settled in South America, French merchants, backed by their government, re-establish the French colony of France Antarctique [Rio de Janeiro] in South America, from which the French were expelled by the Portuguese in 1567.

Seeing themselves at risk from New England invaders, large numbers of French volunteers travel to fight the invaders. With this assistance the French army is able to expel the New Englanders and advance into New England itself.

[Without the French in India to encourage them, the southern Pegu region does not rebel against the ruling Ava dynasty and region (both in real world Burma). The Ava state is not weakened to breaking point, and the Restored Toungoo Dynasty remains in power.]

Although there are a great many teething problems, as the reforms of the Mughal military settle into place, it becomes a much stronger and more effective force.

The MacGillivray Clock is soon copied by others around the world, greatly assisting in navigation of all kinds.

The idea of the spinning machine spreads to other places where there is a large textile industry, such as Britain, and begins to find wide usage around the world.


The Mughal Empire and the Kanyakumari Pact ban ships of the British East India Company from the waters around India on pain of sinking.

In Kozhikode, female general Kamala Sarabhai manages to persuade the leaders of all of the major factions in Kozhikode to meet in the city of Kozhikode itself. After long discussions she further persuades them that they must band together for the defence of Kozhikode, otherwise everyone will lose as the country is taken over and split up by Mysore and Thanjavur. However, the various factions cannot agree on who should rule Kozhikode, and how.

In order to cope with dissent and other political problems the new Scottish government re-opens the infamous political prison on the Bass Rock.

In North America, the Puritans name their new land on the Pacific coast the New Commonwealth of North America.

Mughal and Dakshina Nad navy vessels stationed in Malagasia, Ghobararazi and Giâhrarazi help to enforce the ban on British East India Company shipping entering the Indian Ocean.

A number of skirmishes occur between European and Indian shipping up and down the coast of West Africa. This leads to increasing naval development on both sides, and to both sides setting up navel bases in what they consider to be important locations to protect their merchants and trade.


The Russian Empire is forced to sign the Treaty of Sevastopol, ending the war with Ottoman Empire and handing over significant territory on the north coast of the Black Sea to them.

The first British East India Company ship to defy the ban on entering Indian waters is sunk by ships of the navy of Mysore. It is not the last.

After a considerable stalemate, Cosme Calderón de Molina, a Spanish commander working for one of the Kozhikode warlords, suggests that a ruling assembly with the number of votes for each member given by the amount of money possessed by each of them would be the best compromise. After long debate this idea is accepted over others that are made. The new Kozhikode Assembly is formed, based on a Great Charter much like that used in founding a major company, and the state of Pudhiya Kozhikode (New Kozhikode) declared. The richest person in Pudhiya Kozhikode is declared the Samoothiri, the head of state, with the position being reviewed every year.

Elements of the Mughal nobility, unhappy with the conduct of the war and the loss of territory, as well as the reforms imposed by the Emperor, attempt a coup to install a more traditional and militarily-inclined emperor. Lacking wide support, the coup plot is betrayed and the plotters arrested, with some of them being executed and others exiled.

In response to the Trinh alliance with China, the Nguyen Lords of southern Dai Ngu ally themselves with both the Mughal Empire and the Dakshina Nad. Using assistance from their new allies they begin improving and enlarging their military.

The Cambodian uprising is ended by the government of Dai Ngu when it agrees not to attempt to further eradicate Cambodian culture.

Despite this agreement, the government of Dai Ngu does gradually impose more and more restrictions on Cambodian culture and language as time goes by.

In response to the signing of the Treaty of Sevastopol uprisings and unrest occur across Russia, increasing numbers of them organised or assisted by the forces of Aristarkh Fedorovich Venetsianov. This continues for years despite increasingly brutal attempts by the government to suppress it.

The review of wealth every year by the government of Pudhiya Kozhikode also leads to a remarkably open system of finances in Pudhiya Kozhikode as, for many of the rich, the desire for power overrides their desire to keep their finances a secret.


Lisbon, the capital of Portugal, is destroyed in a powerful earthquake that kills some sixty thousand people.

The Dakshina Nad takes over the lease for the former Portuguese settlement of Macau, in China.

The first electrical telegraph system is invented by Thomas Drebbel in the Netherlands. [This completely bypasses the development of the optical telegraph.]

Mughal Emperor Suleiman Tabar dies of old age. He is succeeded by his son, who becomes Emperor Iziad Bakhsh, in a succession made peaceful by the succession laws enacted by Suleiman Tabar when he came to the throne in 1739.

Using its previous claims to lands it has settled in South America, French colonists begin to expand their settlement in France Équinoxiale [French Guiana] southwards towards the sites where the previous attempts to found a France Équinoxiale were aborted by Portuguese military action.

The New England government offers a settlement to the French to end the New England War.

The first permanent Russian settlement is founded in Alyeska [earlier than in the real world].

Both accidentally and deliberately non-native species are released into Marege [Australia] by traders and visitors from Europe, India and elsewhere. Some of these enjoy massive population explosions as they expand into the new lands of Marege, causing devastation to the native ecology [much as happened in the real world, particularly with rabbits].


Kareena Goswami becomes the first woman to join the Mughal Imperial House of the Sciences.

With help from the Mughal Empire and Dakshina Nad, and in some cases yielding to pressure from them, the states of the south east Asia and the East Indies [Indonesia] demand that the various European nations who have taken control of parts of their lands leave.

Some of the European outposts grudgingly comply. Others refuse.

A number of foreigners with money begin to take seats in the Pudhiya Kozhikode Assembly.

The New England War ends with New England losing some of its border regions with French, and with the border between the two nations being officially defined 'in perpetuity'.

After the New England War, to help with the military and political coordination of the English colonies adjoining Canada-Louisiana, all of the English colonies in North America are merged into the Dominion of New England, despite protests from them all.


The southern Pegu region [of real world Burma] rebels against the ruling Restored Toungoo Dynasty. [This is later than in the real world.] Unable to maintain control, the Restored Toungoo Dynasty falls and the Bama [Burma] region descends into civil war.

Mughal traders and settlers from Jangalarazi in Africa begin to impinge upon the territory of the Ashantee people.


Indian inventor Kulbhushan Kant Sahay develops a machine to separate cotton fibres from cotton seeds and seed pods [this is equivalent to the Cotton Gin. Coming into use in India, this begins to revolutionise the Indian textile industry as it massively increases the quantity of cotton that can be processed in a day. This was invented by Eli Whitney in 1793 in the real world.]

The Restored Toungoo Dynasty of Bama [Burma] is replaced by the new Alaungpaya Dynasty [which is not the same as the Konbaung Dynasty of the real world].

What becomes known as the First Anglo-Scottish War begins after raids across the Anglo-Scottish border from Scotland over alleged border infractions result in English troops invading Scottish soil.

Seeing that their country could be 'bought out' by rich foreigners, the members of the Pudhiya Kozhikode Assembly vote to expel all foreign members, and rule that only natives of the country may take part in ruling it.

Halley's Comet reappears, in accordance with predictions made by Halley in 1705.

With help from the Indian nations, all of the European settlements in south-east Asia are conquered by the local governments, and their European governors ejected, in some cases with great loss of life.


The storming of the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius Monastery in Sergiev Posad near Moscow after it is taken over by Raskolniki ends with great loss of life and the destruction of much of the town. As news of this spreads, it triggers an uprising of Raskolniki in Moscow, led by Aristarkh Fedorovich Venetsianov. As the Russian government tries to suppress it, the uprising only spreads. Elements of the Russian army mutiny against their leaders and join the Raskolniki. Russia begins to dissolve into civil war and revolution.

With increasing trade between India and Europe, both regions seek a way to facilitate travel between the two areas. The Suez, between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, is an obvious location for a canal. The Mughal, British and French Empires pressure and persuade the Ottoman Empire to allow construction to begin on a canal across Suez to facilitate shipping. This will follow the route of the ancient Suez Canal, linking the River Nile with the Red Sea.

With the expulsion of the Dutch from Melaka, the Sultanate of Johor takes advantage of the weakness of the newly freed Sultanate and quickly takes over this prime trading location on the Straits of Melaka.

Skirmishes between Mughal and Ashantee forces along their mutual border lead to heavy losses for the Ashantee, in terms of both troops and territory.

By this point the number of European émigrés in India is such that they have almost become a self-sustaining class of their own. This makes it significantly harder for new European émigrés to succeed there. Because of this Europeans begin going elsewhere to seek their fortunes, to South-East Asia, the East Indies, the Middle East, and Africa. At the same time and for similar reasons Indian expatriates, fortune seekers and so on begin going to the nations adjoining India to make their fortunes, and in the process help them to advance too.

1640 to 1669 | 1670 to 1699 | 1700 to 1729 | 1730 to 1759 | 1760 to 1789 | 1790 to 1819
1820 to 1849 | 1850 to 1879 | 1880 to 1909 | 1910 to 1939 | 1940 to 1969 | 1970 to 2000

The World in 2000 | Africa | Central America And The Caribbean | North America | South America | Antarctica
Central Asia | Eastern And South-Eastern Asia | South Asia | Europe | The Middle East | Oceania

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