The Taj Mahal, Copyright 2007 Gerald Brimacombe

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TIMELINE : 1880 TO 1909

The Taj Mahal, Copyright 2007 Gerald Brimacombe

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1640 to 1669 | 1670 to 1699 | 1700 to 1729 | 1730 to 1759 | 1760 to 1789 | 1790 to 1819
1820 to 1849 | 1850 to 1879 | 1880 to 1909 | 1910 to 1939 | 1940 to 1969 | 1970 to 2000


The Manchu Chinese Empire is renamed the Holy Chinese Empire, with an official religion of Russian Orthodoxy and its capital remaining in the city of Beijing. The flag of the new Holy Chinese Empire combines the saffron background colour of the ruling (puppet) Manchu Dynasty with an overlaid black Slavonic Cross. A Russian puppet state, it is still nominally ruled by the Manchu Dynasty, who are, of course, all now Orthodox Christians.

The flag of the Holy Chinese Empire

With the effective takeover of northern China by the Russians, refugees flee south into Ling China and west into the Central Asian Khanates.

The long-stalemated Miners War between Canada-Louisiana and New England finally ends as both sides agree a withdrawal to their pre-war borders, and to avoid mining under each others territory in the future.

Following the defeat and humiliation of Oranjestaat in the Cape War and its aftermath, the Oranjestaat government falls. Only the King retains some confidence of the people. He calls for a referendum on a new way forward for the country, one that will ensure they avoid a repeat of the humiliations they have just suffered.

Persia invades Russian Anatolia in an attempt to regain the territory the previous Persian government gave to the Holy Russian Empire. What becomes known as the War of Persian Betrayal begins.

Persian forces advance into Anatolia.

The first mass-produced internal combustion engined automobile goes on sale in France. These soon being out-competing steam cars, due to their much faster start times.

A Great Southern Comet appears with a fifty degree long tail.

Over-exploitation causes the America bison [the 'buffalo'] to become extinct in the wild.

As time passes, mass-produced automobiles begin to be adopted around the world, bringing with them both benefits and problems [much as in the real world].


The Holy Chinese Empire works to strengthen its border with Ling China and stem the outflow of refugees. However, by now many soldiers, imperial officials, and the intellectual and business elites of northern China either have fled or are in the process of fleeing.

Ling China becomes the first nation to use heavier-than-air aircraft in combat, to defend the refugees fleeing from the Holy Chinese Empire.

Russian forces invade Persia from the north.

The Persian advance into Anatolia is halted by the Holy Russian Empire at the Battle of Malatya.

With this defeat, and the two-front war the Persians are now being forced to fight, Russia begins to push the Persians back.

The Mughal Empire secretly offers help to Persia against Russia. This help is rejected.

Sarekat begins drilling for oil in its new territory of Eastern Borneo.

Trade disagreements lead to the Second Jawa-Johor War breaking out between Sarekat and the Sultanate of Johor.

A Great Comet appears in the southern skies with a tail twenty degrees long.


At a meeting of the Oikoumene Council the use of chemical weapons in war is banned. Some nations who are not members of the Council, such as the Holy Russian Empire, also sign this agreement.

The last Persian forces are expelled from Russian Anatolia.

In an effort to encourage trade, English engineers begin construction of a canal across Central America in the territory of Mosquitia, linking Lake Nicaragua to the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans [that is, it is a Nicaragua Canal].

After prolonged debate, the government and people of Oranjestaat vote to change the government of their country into a modified form of that put forward by Enver Sevket in the Ottoman Empire, a Sophocracy, using scientific principles to run the country along the best possible lines. The King retains significant power and is not just a figurehead, and the new government structure explicitly states its intention to change and learn if required.

Mud flows from the eruption of the Galunggung volcano in Jawa [Java] kill more than four thousand people.

Comet Puncog-Gonpo [Wells] appears. It has a tail forty degrees long.

The Great September Comet is seen between September this year and Mid-February of the next. It is very bright, with tail twenty-five degrees long, and can be seen by the naked eye during daylight, even at noon and close to the sun.


The major eruption of the Krakatau volcano off the coast of Jawa [Java] kills more than thirty-six thousand people in ash falls and tsunami. The blast is heard five thousand kilometres away.

[Because of the more advanced science of vulcanology, there is more warning of what is about to happen when Mount Krakatoa begins to rumble. However, there are also more people living in its vicinity, so that while efforts are made to evacuate and safeguard people, they are largely ineffective, leading to the deaths of more people than in the real world.]

As Sarekat and the Sultanate of Johor reel from the effects of the eruption of Krakatoa, the Second Jawa-Johor War quickly peters out as each side moves to recover from the effects of the eruption. In several cases forces from one side help victims from the other, undoing much of the bad feeling caused by the war.

The rulers of the islands of Flores, Sumba and Timor (to the east of Jawa [Java]) unexpectedly declare their allegiance to the Mughal Empire. It appears that the Mughal Empire has pressurised the rulers into signing over their nations to them under the guise of offering emergency assistance from Koshiki in Marege [Australia]. Despite general international disapproval of this, the Mughal Empire retains its control of the islands.

Disagreements between Oranjestaat, Nova Holland and Van Diemens Land over Oranjestaat's adoption of a Sophocratic system of government cause the three nations to go their separate ways, though all of them still consider themselves to be Dutch.

Russian forces push into Persia, against stiff resistance, their attacks demolishing many Persian cities.

Persia has no choice but to surrender to Russia. With this the War of Persian Betrayal ends and the Holy Russian Empire takes control of the country.

Many of the Panahi Dynasty and the high-ranking members of the Persian government flee into the Mughal Empire. Those who do not are taken 'for trial' by the Russians and disappear into the Katorga system of penal servitude, never to be seen again. The old Persian Emperor is re-instated by the Russians and the Foroutan Dynasty resumes its rule of the country.

As reparations for their attack on Russia, Persia loses all of its Anatolian territory, as well as areas on its northern and western frontiers to the Russians. Persia is also forced to withdraw from the Sarajevo Pact.

Persia under the reinstated Emperor quickly becomes much more of a police state than it was before, and has much less independence from Russia.

The rebuilding of Persia begins, punctuated by unrest and violence over the humiliation of their country by its powerful neighbours.

In the aftermath of the Krakatoa eruption, many scientists devote their efforts to the study of vulcanology, hoping to avoid a similar such catastrophe in the future.


A naval force from the Holy Russian Empire takes control of the Pacific islands of Hawaii. The resistance of the natives and their appeals to the rest of the world for help come to nothing.

As Persia begins to show signs of turning into a Russian puppet state, the Mughal Empire raises strong objections to this, and begins moving its forces to the Persian border.

Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Zafar dies of old age. He is succeeded by his son, who becomes Emperor Zahiruddin Nafis.

Sarekat and the Sultanate of Johor hastily ally themselves against future Mughal aggression in the Treaty of Denpasar (the capital of Bali).

New England, bellicose after the Miners War, demands greater rights to control of the traffic on the Saint Lawrence River that divides it from Canada-Louisiana. These demands are rejected.

Fishing fleets from Canada-Louisiana and the Dominion of New England clash over fishing rights and the amounts of fish caught in the north-west Atlantic Ocean. In response both nations send naval vessels to protect their fleets.

As Sarekat and the Sultanate of Johor recover from the Krakatoa blast, political tensions once again grow between them.


In the Holy Chinese Empire, the Russian-dominated Orthodox Christian government begins deliberately attempting to eradicate the Confucian order and Chinese culture and replace it with an Orthodox Christian society using Cyrillic script. The Chinese writing system is outlawed, although a majority of people know it and continue to use it covertly. Practises such as concubineage and foot binding are outlawed, and monogamy declared the only legal form of marriage.

Sarekat begins making large profits from the oil it is drilling in Eastern Borneo. The Sultanate of Brunei complains about this, but can do little, despite protests from the Oikoumene Council.

The flow of refugees from the Holy Chinese Empire into Ling China becomes a flood.

Not wishing to fight the Mughal Empire at this point, the Holy Russian Empire instead negotiates with it through the auspices of the Oikoumene Council. Both nations agree that the Persian Empire shall be a neutral state between them, with trading agreements with both empires to help Persia rebuild, and a minimal military. The Persians are barely consulted on this, but have little choice but to agree.

In response to the rejection of its demands over the Saint Lawrence River by Canada-Louisiana, New England begins to blockade Canada-Louisianan shipping leaving the River into the Atlantic, using its naval facilities in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland as bases for this.

As the fishing fleets of Canada-Louisiana and the Dominion of New England meet, shots are fired between their escorting naval vessels. As this fighting escalates what becomes known as the Cod War is declared.

The conflict in China causes and continues to cause massive social disruption and upheaval, so that the Holy Chinese Empire remains backwards and poverty-stricken [not unlike North Korea in the real world, but on a far larger scale].

Driven by fear of the Russians and the Holy Chinese Empire, Ling China begins modernising itself with the assistance of those nations who helped it during the Chinese Civil War, who are happy to do so, seeing a strong China as another bulwark against Russia, as well as a potentially profitable trading partner. The Confucian order in Ling China is reformed and updated to more fit in with the modern age and to help China modernise and industrialise [much as it has been in Singapore and Taiwan in the real world]. Chinese industry, already having been developed in southern China during the Civil War, grows across all of Ling China. However, Ling China holds fast to all of the social practises outlawed in the Holy Chinese Empire, such as polygamy, concubinage and foot binding.

As time goes by the neutral state and minimal military forced on Persia actually allows it to develop more quickly and widely than would have been the case with a military to support. Even so, despite its high living standards, Persian nationalist unrest remains significant.


With Russian assistance the Holy Chinese Empire does its best to close the border with Ling China to prevent it population simply voting with the feet and leaving, fortifying vast lengths of it and executing those it catches trying to cross it.

Canada-Louisiana sends warships to escort its merchant ships from the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic. When they refuse to stop for the New England blockade, shots are fired, and what becomes known as the Saint Lawrence War begins. This soon merges with the Cod War.


Russian Prokhor Zemtsov, charged with assisting the fortification of the border between the two Chinas, invents barbed wire, and immediately begins using it along the intra-Chinese border. [In the real world this was invented in 1874.]

As the Saint Lawrence War takes hold, shots are fired across the border between New England and Canada-Louisiana, and all shipping to and from Canada-Louisiana is halted before it reaches the Saint Lawrence River.

Brunei attempts to seize the Bornean oilfields, but is beaten back by Sarekat forces.

Pressed by the Holy Russian Empire, the Ottoman government cedes them territory along the border of Russian-controlled Anatolia.

As news of this new capitulation to the Russians spreads, unrest begins across the Ottoman Empire.

New England forces begin blockading the North Atlantic and Caribbean to prevent shipping reaching Canada-Louisiana by other routes.

Two thousand people are killed after an earthquake strikes the French Riviera.

A powerful earthquake strikes Sonora, Mexico.

Another Great Southern Comet appears with a tail fifty degrees long.

The Holy Russian Empire begins using barbed wire to also fortify its borders in Central Asia. Other nations also quickly adopt this idea.


Zhou Biao, an official fleeing from the Chinese court in Beijing, brings with him damning evidence that the Zhengjiaotu Rebellion and the entire creation of the Holy Chinese Empire was orchestrated by the Holy Russian Empire.

A French exploration party under Antoine de Laclos becomes the first to reach the South Pole, which they claim for France. [This happened in 1911 in the real world.]

In a fairly bloodless coup, the Ottoman government is toppled by the Empire Revival Movement and a new Sophocratic government and constitution installed. Sultan Murad VI and the ruling House of Osman of which he is a member are removed from their pre-eminent position and instead placed into a more constitutional, figurehead role. As part of this Ottoman Empire also reforms its political structures so as to separate the Caliphate and Sultanate, with the Emperor remaining Caliph and the authority of the Sultanate resting with the government as a whole. Enver Sevket is freed from his long house arrest and installed as honorary President of the new Ottoman Empire.

As part of the Sophocratic revolution in the Ottoman Empire the Janissaries and the Mamluks of Egypt, both of which groups are seen as at least partially responsible for the defeats of the Ottoman Empire against the Russians, are forcibly disbanded, with great loss of life among both groups.

After a number of outbreaks of disease in the Anglo-Danish Nicaragua Canal project, a number of doctors from the Dakshina Nad and Mughal Empire are brought in to advise on the defeat of the tropical diseases there. This spreads knowledge of Indian techniques of disease treatment, particularly of tropical diseases, through the European world.

Large deposits of copper and other minerals are discovered in the Portuguese-controlled Kingdoms of Luba and Lunda. Mining efforts begin. [This is somewhat earlier than in the real world.]


With the border between the two Chinas finally sealed and heavily guarded, the population of the Holy Chinese Empire is now essentially held prisoner in their own country.

Canada-Louisiana begins developing new port facilities in Labrador, north of the Saint Lawrence River at the town of Nain, linking them to the rest of Canada-Louisiana via a new railway line.

The first changes to the Ottoman laws and government required to implement the principles of the Empire Revival Movement are put into place. This is helped by financial and other assistance offered by the Mughal Empire.

Comet Kyrkjebø [Barnard 2] appears.

Despite the supposed closing of the border between the two Chinas, there is a constant low level of defections into Ling China along the border between them, as well as the smuggling of many traditional Chinese items and texts back into the Holy Chinese Empire.


Triggered by the French claims in Antarctica, the Anglo-Danish Empire claims a large area of Antarctica to the south of South America, naming it Queensland.

In a referendum, the two nations of California and Tejas merge into a single Republic. The referendum vote also decides the name of the entire nation - California.

In a diversionary attack, New England forces attack and hold the northern tip of Quebec then, when the forces of Canada-Louisiana move to eject them, attack the new port under construction at Nain. Despite damaging it, they do not destroy Nain and are driven away, although the tip of Quebec remains under their control.

Anti-Empire Revival unrest in the outlying regions of the Ottoman Empire is finally suppressed.

Pressure to provide preferential trading deals with England-Denmark, France and the Mughal Empire drives Oranjestaat, which wishes to maintain its independence from all three of the states pressuring it, to the negotiating table.

King Frederick William III of Prussia dies, and is replaced by his son, who becomes King William II. Although as enthusiastic a member of the Freidenker [Freethinker] movement as his father, William is considerably less competent than him, and under his rule Prussian government oppression grows greater and greater.

The first entirely man-made material, known as synthetics [polymer plastic] is developed by Abdulhakeem Jashanmal in Oman. [As opposed to the real world, where Bakelite was developed in 1907.]

In the Great Khanate, inventor Mengke Jianlian, a descendant of Chinese refugees, develops the Skimmer [the hovercraft; this occurred in 1915 in the real world]. These soon come to be widely used across the steppes of Central Asia, and elsewhere, in both civilian and military versions.

Despite the official merging of California and Tejas, a Tejas Independence Movement remains active in the east of the new Republic of California, though it is very much a minority.


Responding to the Anglo-Danish claiming of Queensland, Portugal claims a large area of Antarctica to the east of Anglo-Danish Queensland, naming it Terra do Maria (Mary's Land) after their Queen.

Improvements in steam engine design mean that steam-engine-driven hot air havajahaz [airships] become more efficient and cost effective than internal-combustion-engine driven ones.


The Holy Russian Empire completes the Trans-Siberian railway linking Moscow with the Holy Chinese Empire and the Pacific Ocean, which they began to build in 1874 [in the real world the Trans-Siberian railway was completed in 1916 after twenty-five years of work].

The forces of the Holy Chinese Empire begin reinforcing their garrisons in the cities of Tibet.

After long negotiations, Oranjestaat, England-Denmark, France and the Mughal Empire reach a mutually agreeable settlement, by which all of the latter three nations act as counterbalances to the others, and all three have equal access to the resources of Oranjestaat. With the signing of this Triple Treaty, Oranjestaat gains the protection it desires, and guaranteed markets for its goods.


With 'permission' from the Holy Chinese Empire, Russian emissaries enter the Chinese tributary state of Joseon [Korea] asking for permission to send missionaries and merchants into the country. This request is refused.

An attempted coup by Russian Orthodox Christians allegedly seeking religious freedom in the Khanate of Kokand is traced back to the Holy Russian Empire. The perpetrators are personally executed by the Khan himself.

With the blockades of all of its seaports causing significant harm, Canada-Louisiana approaches New England to end the Saint Lawrence War. After long negotiations, New England is given the greater control of the Saint Lawrence River that it demanded, including the power to charge tolls on all shipping using it. They also retain control of the northern tip of Quebec, which is placed largely under the administration of the Hudson's Bay Company. With this the Saint Lawrence War ends. At the same time an agreement defining the areas to be fished and the amount to be caught by both sides ends the Cod War part of the conflict.

The last changes seen as necessary by the Empire Revival Movement are put into place in the Ottoman Empire.

Much of the trade with Canada-Louisiana that used to use the Saint Lawrence River moves either south, to the Mississippi, or north to the new port at Nain. However, New England continues to make a significant income from tolls on shipping on the Saint Lawrence River.

The new Sophocratic Ottoman government is a secular meritocratic technocracy, using scientific principles to run the Empire along the best possible lines. Unfortunately it quickly becomes quite clear that these principles are filtered through the ideology of the new government, steering its conclusions and decisions towards supporting the form of the newly installed Ottoman government. Because of this criticism and analysis of the new government, even of a constructive nature, soon becomes ... discouraged.

Despite its gradually sinking into despotism the new Ottoman government does at least adhere to its stated principles of equal opportunity for all, including women, assessing all children throughout their schooling and giving those who shine the best chances to rise, for their own good, and the good of the Empire. All citizens are streamed into their 'scientifically determined' 'ideal role' in their teens, and are expected to stay in that role for the rest of their lives.

The ideas of Sophocracy begin to spread slowly across the nations of the world. Even where governments do not become Sophocracies, the ideas of Sophocracy have an influence on political thinking.


Wishing to remove the threat of the hostile Holy Chinese Empire taking effective control over Tibet on their borders, a Mughal army invades Tibet from the south. After a number of clashes, the larger and better-equipped Mughal forces evict the Chinese forces and take control of all of Tibet. Many Tibetans flee out of Tibet into the Central Asian Khanates.

Russian forces enter Joseon [Korea]. The Joseon military is devastated by Russian air strikes and gas attacks, and swiftly breaks. Russian forces begin to occupy the country.

Prince William of Prussia, son of King William II, acting for what he sees as the good of his nation and his people, stages a coup, overthrowing his dictatorial father and imprisoning him. He becomes King William III.


Scotland claims an area of Antarctica to the south of the New Shetland Islands, naming it Nova Tiree (New Tiree).

The Anglo-Danish Nicaragua Canal finally opens to shipping. As trade begins passing through it, it immediately begins making money from tolls.

As part of his new regime, King William III of Prussia restores religious freedom, opens the country to the rest of the world, and institutes a new constitution, limiting his own power and installing a democratic government structured roughly upon Polish lines.

The first system to use barj mouj [radio] waves to detect objects at a distance [radar, developed in the 1930s in the real world] is developed by Matthew Stensgaard in England-Denmark. It becomes known as the Spark Wave Echo Detection System (SWEDS), though wags soon reword this to Stensgaards Weird (or Wonderful) Electronic Devices.

Comet Devold-Puncog [Perrine] appears.


Responding to the claiming of Nova Tiree, the Dakshina Nad claims a large area of Antarctica south of India and Marege, naming it Thañnîr Nad (the Land of Cold Water).

The Mughal Empire quickly lays claim to an area of Antarctica west of Nova Tiree which they name Yakharazi (the Land of Ice).

The last resistance to the Russian invasion of Joseon [Korea] is crushed.

The first system to detect objects underwater using sound waves [sonar] is developed by Akkitham Kunchan Nambiar in the Dakshina Nad. This becomes known as Etiroli Puthaiyal (echo location), which in the rest of the world soon becomes abbreviated to simply Etiroli [in the real world this was developed in 1913].

The first comprehensive theory of quantum mechanics is proposed by Marek Trybulec in Poland [in the real world this was developed in 1900].

Most of the claims to Antarctica remain claims only for many years, with very few people travelling to or living on the Antarctic continent.


The Germanic Alliance is subsumed into the Bavarian state, with the other smaller states that joined the Alliance officially becoming part of Bavaria. The nation is renamed the Kingdom of Bavaria, with the ruling dynasty of Bavarian prince electors being renamed the Münchener Dynasty.

The first gas turbine engine is developed by Girish Sontakke in Mysore [as opposed to 1903 in the real world].

French historian Tristan Verlaine puts forward a genealogical route connecting Charlemagne, King of the Franks from 768 to 814 AD, to the Mughal Emperors, and to much of the other royalty of Europe and Asia as well [this is basically the same as the theory of this in the real world].

As time passes and this theory spread around the world, several political groups in Europe and the Mughal Empire use it to justify calling for the unification of all of Europe and Asia under one ruler. However, there is great disagreement as to who this ruler should actually be. These groups become known as Charlemagneists, with the nation who a given group considers should rule all of the rest often given as a prefix (for example, the French Charlemagneists).


Oil is discovered in the part of northern Borneo controlled by the Sultanate of Sulu.

The first commercial radio programmes are broadcast from London in England-Denmark.

The first commercially viable solar cell is invented by Maximilien de Gobineau in French Algeria. [This is some fifty years earlier than in the real world.]

A web of alliances begins to build as the world slowly begins to divide into the Dharmic and One Truth blocs.


In an attempt to unify the various different mapping and timing systems in use around the world, the Oikoumene Council calls an International Meridian Conference in Muscat, the capital of Oman. It quickly becomes clear that the practical fact is that roughly half of all ships and tonnage in the world use the meridian running through Ujjain in the Mughal Empire, one which has been used by Hindu geographers since the fourth century BC, while the majority of the rest of the worlds shipping uses a number of different European Reference Meridians running through London, Paris, Berlin and so on. Because of this, after long debate, the meridian of Ujjain is chosen as the Prime Meridian for the world as a whole. [This is later than in the real world, where the equivalent of this occurred in 1884.] Only the Holy Russian Empire declines to recognise the new Meridian, preferring to maintain their traditional Moscow time and Moscow Meridian.

An Orthodox Christian khan comes to the throne in the Khanate of Irtysh after a particularly bloody succession struggle there.

Territorial infringements between Mughal and Dakshina Nad colonists on the island of Malagasia [Madagascar] lead to an exchange of shots

Physicist Bogdan Damnjanovi, working at the University of Sarajevo, proposes a Theory of Relativity [as opposed to 1905 in the real world].

The first jet engine is invented by Mallikarjun Hegde in the Kingdom of Mysore [in the real world invented in the 1930s].

The first antibiotics are discovered by Doctor Makali Musingku in Papua. [As opposed to 1928 in the real world, when penicillin was discovered.]

There are some problems with the choice of the Ujjain Meridian. The main one being that the meridian opposite the new Prime Meridian - which would ideally form the International Date Line - runs through Mexico and North America. Nonetheless, under political pressure the new Prime Meridian is adopted. However, as a compromise the official Line is rerouted through the southern border of Mosquitia, so that Central America and North America, including the Dominion of Nordland and Iceland, lie to the west of the Line while South America (including the Galapagos Islands) lies to the east of the line. It is thus possible to gain or lose a calendar day by stepping over the border from Mosquitia into or out of New Granada or Casaquiarja.


After long years of increasingly close cooperation for mutual protection against the Mughal Empire and other threats, the members of the Kanyakumari Pact agree to unify aspects of their governments, forming a federal government with elements based on that of Switzerland and its capital in the newly created Federal District of Kanyakumari City itself. Tamil is adopted as the official languages of the new government. This new Federation is known officially as the Kanyakumari Federation, but even before it is officially formed becomes more widely know by the traditional term of Dakshina Nad, meaning simply South India.

A new flag is adopted for the Kanyakumari Federation, made up of colours from all of the nations and religions making up the Federation.

The flag of the Kanyakumari Federation

With the formation of the Kanyakumari Federation, the overseas regions of Papua, Pudhiya Dakshina Nad and Eastern Malagasia are incorporated into the Federation as new states. Also, the armies and air forces of all of the states making up the new Federation are merged into a single unified force, as their navies were in 1760.

The military of the Holy Russian Empire begins to 'advise' the Khan of Irtysh.

The Dakshina Nad governor of their part of the island of Malagasia [Madagascar] sends troops to enforce their interpretation of the border. Shots are exchanged with Mughal forces.

A Great Comet appears. This is a naked-eye comet for the Southern Hemisphere.

Portugal begins construction of a railway to bring minerals mined in Luba and Lunda to the Atlantic coast via the Portuguese Congo.

Scientist Santiago Trueba in California puts forward what becomes known as 'Trueba's Cockroach' as a descriptor for the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics. [This is equivalent to Schrödinger's cat].

In California, Rufino Pliego becomes the first person to develop a successful rotary-winged aircraft [this is an autogyro rather than a helicopter]. He names his invention the Acer-Ala [Maple-Wing] after the way in which it works.

The royal families of each of the states making up the Kanyakumari Federation (where they exist) each retain their position in their home state. In addition, the position of head of state of the Federation rotates among each of the leaders of the constituent states in turn on a two year basis [this is similar to the Majlis Raja-Raja system in Malaysia in the real world]. The Vai Arasan (Tamil for Assembly of Kings) made up of representatives of the monarchs and nobility of all of the states of the Federation acts as an advisory council in the Federation, performing a similar function to the durbars of the individual states.

Over the following years a number of inventors, groups and governments around the world attempt to develop the Acer-Ala into a craft capable of true hovering and vertical flight [a helicopter]. However, despite some successes, such craft remain complex and unstable, so that they come to be considered an over-complicated curiosity rather than a useful type of aircraft.


As the fighting in Malagasia escalates, both the Dakshina Nad and Mughal Empire are unwilling to concede to the demands of the other. What becomes known as the Malagasia War is declared. Dakshina Nad and Mughal Empire come into conflict with one another for the first time in many years. This war is one of the first where submarines are widely used.

Mughal Emperor Zahiruddin Nafis dies of old age. He is succeeded by his son, who becomes Emperor Salim Jahangir II.

The Dakshina Nad begins experimenting with the idea of aircraft carrier ships.

The Sultanate of Brunei attempts to seize the part of northern Borneo controlled by the Sultanate of Sulu. The forces of the Sultanate of Sulu drive them back.

Mount Pelee on the island of Martinique erupts killing twenty-nine thousand people in a pyroclastic flow.

Nearly seventeen hundred people are killed in ash flows from the Soufriere volcano on the island of St Vincent in the West Indies.

The eruption of the Santa Maria volcano in Mosquitia [Guatemala] kills four thousand people via ash falls, disease and starvation.


As fighting between the Dakshina Nad and Mughal Empire escalates and spreads, both sides begin to realise how little they have to gain and how much to lose from this war.

A hastily-convened conference under the auspices of the Oikoumene Council ends the Malagasia War. In a compromise solution the island of Malagasia is simply divided into roughly equal halves along a north-south line, with the Mughal Empire keeping the western half and the Dakshina Nad the eastern.

The first commercial airline begins operation, flying rich pilgrims on the Hajj from Delhi in the Mughal Empire to Mecca.


An attempted Muslim coup in the Khanate of Irtysh is foiled by Russian forces and some of those responsible executed. Many of the rest flee into the neighbouring Khanates.

Comet Branco [Borrelly] is discovered.


Continuing political differences lead Sarekat and the Sultanate of Johor to dissolve the alliance they cemented with the Treaty of Denpasar.

After years of unrest, Spain grants its colonies of Peru and Charcas [Bolivia] their independence [as opposed to 1824 and 1825 respectively in the real world].

An earthquake in Kangra in the Mughal Empire kills three hundred and seventy thousand people.


After prolonged negotiations fail, Ling China takes control of the Bai Cat Vang [Spratly Islands] in the South China Sea from the Sultanate of Sulu.

When the Khan of Irtysh demolishes the Great Mosque in Irtysh to make way for a Russian Orthodox Cathedral, the people of Irtysh rise up in revolt. Despite slaughter by the guest forces of the Holy Russian Empire, the Irtysh military is on the side of the revolt, and the Khan is killed while trying to flee. A Muslim Khan comes to the throne, and asks for Mughal advisors. With their help, and a few skirmishes between Mughal and Russian forces, the Khanate of Irtysh becomes Islamic again.

A powerful earthquake strikes the city of Yerba Buena [San Francisco], in California, demolishing it and starting many fires.

Mexico sends forces to 'render assistance to the people of California' after the Earthquake. In fact they are sent to take control of as much of California as possible.

The last polar bear outside of a zoo is killed for its fur in Russian Alyeska, rendering the species extinct in the wild.


What becomes known as the Earthquake War begins as California forces move to expel those of Mexico from Californian territory.

After negotiations between the Holy Russian and Anglo-Danish Empire, the Holy Russian Empire takes control of the Arctic island of Svalbard, although other nations with a presence there are allowed to maintain it.

Peru and Charcas join Le Pacte d'Amazone.

The Dakshina Nad introduces the first of a radically different type of warship based on a catamaran hull rather than the more traditional single hull, giving more deck area for weaponry and other equipment. [This is not unlike some designs proposes recently in the real world, such as this.]

As time passes many of the nations of the world adopt multi-hulled warship designs of various types.


The Earthquake War ends with California expelling the forces of Mexico from its territory.

The islands of Flores, Sumba and Timor (to the east of Jawa [Java]), which have been under the control of the Mughal Empire since 1883, are incorporated into a new subah (province), the Subah of Sawu.

Eighty-seven thousand people die when an earthquake strikes Messina, on the island of Sicily in the Kingdom of Naples.

1640 to 1669 | 1670 to 1699 | 1700 to 1729 | 1730 to 1759 | 1760 to 1789 | 1790 to 1819
1820 to 1849 | 1850 to 1879 | 1880 to 1909 | 1910 to 1939 | 1940 to 1969 | 1970 to 2000

The World in 2000 | Africa | Central America And The Caribbean | North America | South America | Antarctica
Central Asia | Eastern And South-Eastern Asia | South Asia | Europe | The Middle East | Oceania

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