The Taj Mahal, Copyright 2007 Gerald Brimacombe

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TIMELINE : 1790 TO 1819

The Taj Mahal, Copyright 2007 Gerald Brimacombe

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With considerable popular support the leaders of the coup in the Holy Russian Empire depose Aristarkh Fedorovich Venetsianov, the leader of the Russian Revolution, and send him into exile in Siberia.

The leaders of the new Russian regime show they are of a much more pragmatic bent than the old regime when they announce that although the idealization and protection of all things old and hatred towards everything new is an essential part of the true Russian Orthodox faith, it is sometimes necessary to use things one hates towards a greater good. For example in the defence of that true faith, and of the Holy Russian Empire. To this end, the Holy Russian Empire begins a massive programme of military training and equipping intended to make its forces the superior of anything else in the world. As part of this a new arm of the Church, the Office of Perception, is set up to perform scientific, technical and industrial espionage around the world, and in addition to monitor the world outside the Holy Russian Empire for threats to it, and to act to reduce and eliminate those threats.

Prince François, the youngest son of the King of France and a close friend of Prince Alphonse, unexpectedly and publicly converts to Islam. Although this instantly removes him from the line of succession, conservatives still rail against the 'insidious corruption of Mohammedism' spreading in the French court.

After negotiations, a joint Mughal-Dakshina Nad-Ayutthayan conference installs a new government in Bama, one which is forced to be neutral to all three powers.

Reforms to the Mughal Imperial Examination system are imposed by the Emperor. These work to ensure the fairness of the examinations and their openness to all, regardless of class and caste.

A French military force crushes the Mapuche people at the Battle of Lumaco. The Mapuche people are forced to become subservient to the French crown.

Braseal announces that it is opening its colonies to all suitable people who wish to settle there, subject to an oath of loyalty and service in the military in case of war. This settlement will be subsidised for Portuguese citizens.

The first successful transatlantic telegraph cable is laid between Ireland and New England [as opposed to 1857 in the real world].

Neapolitan astronomer Ildebrando Guadagnini discovers a new planet, the eighth, which he names Iapetus [Neptune, discovered in 1846 in the real world].

The need for industrialisation in the Holy Russian Empire leads to elements of the agricultural revolutions taking place elsewhere in the world being adopted in Russia. This, combined with the lack of Serfdom in the Holy Russian Empire, provides the mobility of labour and frees up people from the land to go and work in the new industries that are being established [at a much earlier time than was the case in the real world], as well as to build the network of railway/telegraph highways that are to link the various regions of the Holy Russian Empire in such a way as to avoid a new War of the Russian Humiliation. Thus the first telegraphs (for official use only) are installed in Russia at this time.

All of the new Russian industries are state-run enterprises attached to the monasteries of the Russian Orthodox Church.

Although the Raskolniki government does its best to prevent the spread of unwanted technology beyond the military, some does creep out over time, in particular medicine, agriculture (to feed the growing numbers of troops and the people who are needed to support them) and transportation (to move the army, but which also proves useful for other things).

As part of its plans for expanding the place, Portugal begins increasing the number of slaves it imports into Braseal.


Engineer Bozorgmehr Airom in the Mughal Empire develops the first armoured steam-powered vehicle [a steam-powered tank], designed to be impervious to gunfire, and in particular to the effects of the Puckle Gun. Despite proving its effectiveness, its reliability is not terribly high and it does not find widespread use.

The Raskolniki government of Russia signs agreements with the English Muscovy Company, trading with them to gain the technical knowledge and training that the Holy Russian Empire so desperately needs.

Lured by the Portuguese government incentives, many settlers begin immigrating into Braseal and the other Portuguese colonies. Many come from Portugal, but large numbers also come from the other nations of Europe. Large numbers of slaves also add to the Brasealian population.


The Holy Russian Empire sets up the Office of Assessment to assess technology, whether it is allowable in the Holy Russian Empire, and if so where, whether everywhere, only in the government, or only in the military. In addition to this it includes an enforcement arm to ensure its decrees are obeyed.

A book entitled 'The Seven Mother Tongues' is published in France. Written by the French philosopher Guillaume Sautet, it espouses a rather racist ideology identifying seven families of languages each descended from one original mother tongue, with all other languages being developments, mixtures or debasings of them. The languages are all considered to have an order of precedence which is the 'natural order' of humanity. In order the languages are: Latin, Arabian (including Persian), Slavic, Indian, Chinese, Celtic and African.

The collapse of the Unzen volcano in Yapon [Japan] and a subsequent tsunami kill more than fourteen thousand people.

As the number of Russian Orthodox Christians in China increases, they begin attempting to convert others. As incidents of conversion by force and violence against non-Christians increase, unrest begins to spread in northern China. Violence against the Russian Orthodox Christians by other Chinese also increases.


Assisted by the French government, Scottish settlers found the colony of New Fife in South America, to the south of Chile, and north of the French colony of Mapuche.

Merchants from the Dakshina Nad discover gold in the south-west of the Pudhiya Dakshina Nad [Australia]. People begin flocking there seeking their fortunes. The Dakshina Nad begins building up its presence there, to protect these miners and profit from them.

The English Royal Universal Company, in its role as successor to the Royal African Company, re-enters the slave market and begins capturing and transporting slaves, mainly to Braseal but also to the England and Denmark, and their colonial possessions.

The first electrical telephone is invented by Rasmus Steenberg Krogh in Denmark [as opposed to 1876 in the real world].


Aristarkh Fedorovich Venetsianov, the leader of the Russian Revolution, dies in exile in Siberia.

The concept of a loyal opposition, that is, that a person can be opposed to the actions of the government or ruling party of the day without being opposed to the constitution of the political system, reaches India from Europe.

The Imamate of Oman, wishing to improve its trade links with the world, invades the neighbouring region of Yemen, which is nominally under the control of the Ottoman Empire.

French Nabob Antoine de Beauharnais, a devout but also tolerant and cosmopolitan Muslim, announces his plan to build a large public mosque in Paris. As he is a close and loyal associate of the King, there is no Royal objection to this.

After a long campaign led by Sikh member of the Mughal Durbar Bhagat Gurdit Singh, and with the approval of the vast majority of the population, slavery and debt bondage are made illegal in the Mughal Empire, and all slaves and those in debt bondage are freed.

Mughal Emperor Shah Babur II dies of old age. He is succeeded by his son, who becomes Emperor Jahan Luftallah.

The Mughal Empire announces that it has achieved near-universal literacy amongst its population.


The first gun using an integrated cartridge to package the bullet, gunpowder and primer into a single metallic case is marketed in England after being invented by Eberhardt James in New England.

As construction of the Paris Mosque begins, a rioting mob, encouraged by Parisian churchmen, break into the site and utterly destroy it. Antoine de Beauharnais appeals to the King for help, but this request is denied.

New Mughal Emperor Jahan Luftallah orders the construction of his own private railway to allow him to travel between his various palaces in style.

Comet Yourcenar [Encke] reappears.


The Chinese government clamps down on Russian Orthodox Christians in China, seeing them as the cause of the recent violence and unrest in the north of China. Some Chinese Christians flee into the Holy Russian Empire. Others go underground in China. Others still try to continue their lives. Some try to resist the Chinese government and are crushed.

Oman completes the conquest of the Yemen despite protests from the Ottoman Empire. It now controls all of the southern Arabian Peninsula.

Antoine de Beauharnais hires guards for his site and, despite violence and intimidation against his workers begins construction of the Paris Mosque again.

As the King fails to prevent this, unrest spreads across France. Riots break out across Paris and are suppressed by the army.

The expansion of Dakshina Nad settlements in Marege forces the English and French to relinquish their claims to significant parts of the sparsely populated interior of Marege. However, they retain control of the more densely populated eastern coastal regions.

Seeking the source of the Nile, Portuguese explorer Cristóvão da Silva Ferreira leaves Mozambique, heading inland.

The anti-slavery faction in the Mughal government begins campaigning for the emancipation of all slaves across the world, not just those in their own country.

Following the Mughal example, the Dakshina Nad also bans slavery, although with rather less public support than in the Mughal Empire.

Because of this all of the European colonies in Marege [Australia], being small outposts on the edge of large non-European powers, soon become quite xenophobic, heavily armed and paranoid.

Despite attempts by the Chinese government to suppress the Russian Orthodox Church the numbers of Russian Orthodox Christians in northern China continue to increase, particularly in the city of Harbin and the area surrounding it.


On St Adrian's day [January 9th] a conspiracy of Catholic conservatives organises a massacre of the Nabobs of France. Antoine de Beauharnais, the architect of the Paris Mosque, is brutally lynched during these massacres. Although many Nabobs are killed by lynch mobs, many others survive and appeal to the King for help. Caught in the middle, the King assists neither side, leading to great bad feeling against him from almost all of the French nobility, whether pro- or anti-Nabob.

Gaspar Vasco Dávila, the Governor of New Spain and a distant descendant of the conquistador Pedrarias Dávila secedes from the Spanish Empire, claiming that it has lost its way and no longer has the right to rule. He renames New Spain the Kingdom of Mexico, with himself as its monarch. According to the new King, Gaspar I, the Kingdom of Mexico has been formed to defend the true principles of Catholicism in the Americas, the principles from which the corrupt and lax Spanish Court in Madrid have deviated over time. A new Mexican Inquisition is set up under the auspices of the new Mexican government to effectively replace the old Spanish Inquisition in Mexico as an enforcer of the religious principles of the new regime and also as a secret police against internal threats to the state.

Spanish troops attempt to crush the attempted secession of New Spain. What becomes known as the Mexican War begins.

More and more the Catholic Church in Europe preaches against the 'corruption' of the Nabobs.


English captain Gregory Peake, blown off course on his way to Port Desire in South America, discovers the continent of Antarctica. [This is some twenty years earlier than in the real world.]

Mexican forces push back the Spanish, aided by covert assistance from the English.

Acting openly now, Catholic conservatives in France organise more violence against the Nabobs, who try to recruit their own forces to defend themselves, but are hampered by public feeling against them.

Religious unrest spreads across some of the German states.

A joint Franco-Scottish expedition begins colonising the islands of Nieuw Zeeland, and laying claim to large areas of land there. A smaller Anglo-Danish expedition also claims parts of the islands.

As the numbers of slaves in England-Denmark increases, a number of groups within the country begin objecting to slavery there, for religious and moral reasons. Many of these objections are supported by the ambassadors of the Holy Russian Empire, who disapprove of slavery abroad as much as they do serfdom at home.

After a long journey, Portuguese explorer Cristóvão da Silva Ferreira does not find the source of the Nile, but instead traces the River Congo all the way to the Atlantic Ocean. He claims all of the land he explores for Portugal.

In the Holy Russian Empire an attempted counter-Revolution by Prince Peter, the grandson of Tsarina Elizabeth I who was overthrown in the Russian Revolution, is defeated by the loyal forces of the Holy Russian Empire, despite the help of some of the most modern parts of the new Russian military. Prince Peter is executed, and the Russian military purged of its disloyal elements.

In the Khanate of Atyrau one of the lesser Khans, Ubashi, a man who has learned from the Russians but who seems to have maintained his Kalmyk identity despite this, topples the existing Khan and takes control of the Khanate [he is not the same person as the Khan of that name from the real world].

English astronomer Benjamin Telford discovers the first of many minor planets orbiting between Mars and Jupiter. He names them Asteroids [Greek for 'star-like'; this is earlier than in the real world, where they were first discovered in 1801].

[With the lack of a French invasion in 1798 and the generally different history of this world Egypt remains firmly part of the Ottoman Empire, rather than becoming a separate nation as it did in the real world.]


The first hand-cranked rapid-fire repeating gun is developed by Romuald Ryll-Nardzewski in Poland-Lithuania and soon finds wide use as the Ryll gun. [This is equivalent to the Gatling gun of the real world.]

The first electrically-driven locomotive, invented by Dodda Chinnamalai, begins operation at an iron mine in the Vizagapatam region of the Mughal Empire. [This is before the steam locomotive is invented in this world.]

Taking advantage of Spanish forces being moved to fight in the Mexican War, other Spanish colonies across South American rise up and attempt to throw off Spanish domination.

French Catholic conservatives begin calling for a 'cleansing' of France of the 'taint' of Islam.

In North America, violence also breaks out in Canada and Louisiana. Although there are few Muslims there the violence against them is used as an excuse by Catholics to also attack the Protestant Huguenots, and vice versa.

Taking advantage of the unrest they are suffering, Prussia invades and takes over a number of the minor German states along its borders.

Based on the explorations of Cristóvão da Silva Ferreira, Portugal claims the region of the Congo for itself, establishing the colony of the same name.

After long years of development, the English colony of Guinea in West Africa is made a Dominion. As part of the structure of the new Dominion the Royal Universal Company, successor to the Royal African Company, is given a monopoly over most trade and industry within the Dominion.

In the Khanate of Atyrau, new leader Ubashi Khan quickly proves himself to be a skilled general, an adept politician, and a unifying leader who quickly rallies all of the people of the Khanate behind him, and promises to lead them on to glory.

As the population of China grows, but its society stays much the same [as happened in the real world] the problems of land shortage and rural pauperisation grow as more and more people no longer have a place in the Chinese agrarian economy. Many of these people make ready recruits for subversive secret societies such as the White Lotus. [This is similar to what happened in the real world.]


Russian ambassador Osip Eduardovitch Khlebnikov travels to Beijing to open diplomatic relations between the Russian and Chinese empires. However, Emperor Jiaqing rejects the opening of relations between the two empires, as he did with the Mughal ambassador Maziyar Kuchek Khan in 1698. Ambassador Khlebnikov remains in Beijing as an observer and informal ambassador.

Over the Lent period what becomes known as the Lenten Massacre occurs in France. Organised mobs attack Nabobs all over the country, many of whom defend themselves and/or try to flee the country. The King attempts to use the army to halt the violence, but the army really does not back him in this, and practically no-one is on his side any more - even the allies of the King think he may have gone too far.

Many people take advantage of the anti-Nabob violence to also attack Jews across France and elsewhere.

As news of the Lenten Massacres in France spreads, unrest against the Nabobs of England also begins to rise.

A number of instances of corruption within the Mughal government causes Emperor Jahan Luftallah to initiate a full-scale investigation of the Mughal system.

Nationalist unrest begins in Bama [Burma] over the neutering of the country by the Mughal Empire, Dakshina Nad and Ayutthaya.

The English colony of Port Desire is renamed Kingsland.

The first electrical trolleybus-type system is constructed by Dodda Chinnamalai in the Mughal Empire. Using externally-supplied electrical power it is able to circumvent the limitations of battery performance that prevent independent electrical vehicles from being viable.

Trolleybuses find application around the world, and are used up to the present day.

Seeing the resurgence of Russian power as a threat to themselves, the Mughal Empire begins offering training and assistance to various of the Central Asian Khanates, in particular the Khanate of Atyrau.

Continuing discoveries of more and more deposits of silver in the Americas cause a consistent drop in the value of silver around the world. This causes particular problems for those nations whose currencies are based on the silver standard, such as the Mughal Empire and China. Canny traders from around the world begin selling silver into the Mughal Empire, China and other silver-backed currencies.


A coalition of French nobles meet in an unofficial Estates-General and after considerable deliberation call on King Louis XVIII to abdicate, as he has clearly lost the right to the throne. Louis refuses. Although there are some defeats of the anti-Royalist forces, Louis soon finds himself under siege in his own palace. This becomes known as the (First) French Revolution.

Aided by the Portuguese in Braseal, the Spanish colony of Chaco [northern Argentina of the real world] breaks free of Spanish control.

The first steam-driven locomotive, invented by Zacarias Resnais, begins operation in France, hauling coal from the mines in northern France.

Religious unrest causes the Kingdom of Bohemia to secede from the Holy Roman Empire. It quickly establishes itself as a constitutional monarchy along Polish-Lithuanian lines.

The Muslim convert Prince François, as well his cousin Prince Alphonse and his wife Princess Roshanara of the Mughal Empire are all lynched as they attempt to make their way out of France.

King Ferdinand V of Naples and Sicily secedes from Spain, who have ruled the Kingdom until now, and declares himself head of state of the new Kingdom of Naples.

Comet Cucinotta [Pons] is discovered by Dante Cucinotta in the Duchy of Milan.

Cucinotta discovers a second comet.

This period becomes known as the Second Wars of Religion.


Under pressure from all sides, King Louis XVIII of France changes his opinion, and agrees to abdicate. He goes into exile in Spain with his immediate family.

Wishing to avoid a repeat of the French Revolution in England, the English government moves quickly to, with the agreement of many of the Nabobs, find a solution to the problem.

Forces in New England attempt to take control of areas of Canada and Louisiana whose defences have been weakened by the unrest during the French Revolution. However, they are beaten off by French defenders.

Amol Deshmukh in Golconda in the Dakshina Nad devises the first system for generating alternating current, allowing electricity to be transmitted for long distances [as happened in 1880 or so in the real world].

Mughal Emperor Jahan Luftallah dies of old age. He is succeeded by his son, who becomes Emperor Muhammed Akbar II [who is not the same as the Emperor Akbar II of the real world].

A number of border skirmishes occur between Xhosaland and the Luba and Lunda Empires in south-eastern Africa.

Cucinotta discovers a third comet.

The first mechanical air cooling machine is developed in Delhi.

The vast majority of the surviving Islamicised people in France flee the country during this time. Some go to the Ottoman Empire, others back to the Mughal Empire, others to Britain and other European nations.

This triggers unrest in the other European nations because they feel that they have their own problems with Islamicised people undermining their native culture, which the flow of refugees from France - both Muslims and otherwise - is only exacerbating.

The period of Europe-wide unrest that surrounds the First French Revolution becomes considered to be the start of the politics of the modern world.

With the Christian nations of Europe weakened and distracted by their own internal troubles, the Knights of Malta, who have traditionally defended Europe against the corsairs and pirates of Algeria and the Barbary coast, lose much of their support, and are weakened.

As another effect of the Second Wars of Religion, persecution of many of the people who have over the years adopted ideas derived from Indian mysticism causes the suppression and hiding of these ideas, with many such groups disbanding or going underground.


After hasty negotiations, involving not a little threatening and intimidation of the mostly elderly and somewhat infirm Nabobs, the English government enacts new laws banning public displays of religions other than Christianity. They also apply moderately heavy retroactive taxation to the wealth of the Nabobs. These efforts taken together significantly calm the situation in England, though there are still occasional bursts of unrest here and there.

A popular nationalist uprising overthrows the Bamese [Burmese] government installed by the Mughal Empire, Dakshina Nad and Ayutthaya.

As religious violence spreads across the Netherlands the country is wracked by apparently spontaneous resistance to this violence. Over time this resistance coalesces into a political movement that rejects not just religious violence, but religion in general. They quickly become known as the Vrijdenkerij [Freethinkers] due to their connections to the atheistic Freethought movement both in the Netherlands and beyond.

A massive raid by the corsairs and pirates of Algeria and the Barbary coast, with covert backing from the Ottoman Empire, defeats the Knights of Malta and takes control of Malta itself.

Financial troubles and troubles with the native Maori people cause the Anglo-Danish colony in Nieuw Zeeland to fail. Some of its settlers join the French and Scottish colonies on the islands.

The investigation of the Mughal government instigated by Emperor Jahan Luftallah in 1800 finally reports back to his successor, having discovered widespread corruption, criminality and bribe-taking within the government.

The ideas of the Vrijdenkerij movement spread across Europe, and, combined with the actions of the movement in the Netherlands, spark a great debate about the separation of Church and State.

When the new Bamese government shows no signs of resuming the hostile and pirate-supporting ways of the predecessor, the Mughal Empire, Dakshina Nad and Ayutthaya content themselves with simply watching the new regime for any signs of trouble while trading with it.


A newly convened Estates-General cannot agree on a new monarch for France. Instead, they eventually elect one of their number, Philippe François, the Duke of Brittany, as Le Dictateur [The Dictator], with the Estates-General as his legislature. Le Dictateur is not a monarch. Because of this, with the coming of the new regime, the flag of France changes from the old design of the 'France Modern', which is still claimed by the old French Royal Family who are now in Spain, to one based on a modified version of the Oriflamme of Charlemagne.

The new French flag

The new Russian military faces its first test as they attempt to retake the territories in Central Asia taken from them during the War of Russian Humiliation. Although the fighting in what becomes known as the Reclamation War reveals some inadequacies in their new methods, in general they are very successful, and the Khanates are routed. The Avar Khanate in the Caucasus is entirely overrun, and many refugees flee south into the Persian Empire.

Unrest spreads through the Khanates of Tobyl and Irtysh, as the people of these Khanates begin to, assisted by propaganda from the Khanate of Atyrau, wish to unify all of the Kalmyk people into a single nation, and seek its greater destiny in the world.

The corsairs and pirates of Algeria and the Barbary coast begin raiding European shipping and the British and continental European coastlines in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. Hundreds of English, French, Spanish and Portuguese are carried off as slaves, as well as significant quantities of loot.

Merchants from the Dakshina Nad discover gold and other minerals on the island of Papua.

Seeking independence for itself, the Duchy of Milan secedes from the Holy Roman Empire.

In an attempt to show that the Mughal Empire is tolerant of and welcoming to people of all faiths, and thus superior to the nations in which religious intolerance is causing so many problems (as well as perhaps helping to disarm the potential for such problems at home), the Emperor Muhammed Akbar II orders the construction of a Temple of All Faiths in Delhi. This quickly becomes known the Mughal Pantheon, particularly in Europe.

As another element of this policy, Princess Gertrude of the Holy Roman Empire becomes the first European noble to marry into the Mughal royal family when she marries Prince Nikusiyar, the third son of Muhammed Akbar II.

Mughal Emperor Muhammed Akbar II also introduces a number of reforms to the Mughal government. In particular, to help avoid bribery, membership of the Panchayats [ruling councils] begins to be selected by a process of random selection (sortition) from those eligible to join it, that is, the nobility.

Despite protests from those who see the Delhi Pantheon as an affront to their religion and beliefs, construction on it proceeds, if slowly.

The Holy Russian Empire begins constructing a number of fortified towns in Central Asia and the Caucasus, with the intention of both defining and defending the borders of the Holy Russian Empire.


A coup with massive public and Royal support overthrows the Dutch government and installs a new regime based on the principles of the Vrijdenkerij [Freethinker] movement. This soon becomes known as the Dutch Revolution. As part of the policies of the new government, all outward religious displays are banned, and all churches are closed, although all citizens are entirely at liberty to pursue their religious beliefs (whatever they may be) in private.

In France, the new Dictateur introduces laws to ensure the 'purity' of France. All non-Catholics are severely discriminated against, and many flee to neighbouring countries, taking their wealth and skills with them.

The last recorded instance of sati occurs in the Mughal Empire. However, it is not unknown for Hindu widows to take the bodies of their husbands into the Dakshina Nad, where sati is generally legal, and both burn their husbands and commit sati themselves there.

Comet Yourcenar [Encke] reappears.

As the value of silver falls around the world, the value of the Mughal rupee drops with it. The economy of the Mughal Empire and its neighbours begins to suffer. This is not helped by the insistence on the construction of the Temple of All Faiths in Delhi by Emperor Muhammed Akbar II. Many foreign investors take advantage of this to invest in Indian industries, or buy Indian goods at low prices.


After some adjustments to its tactics and strategy, the Russian army attacks the Khanate of the Crimea. The Ottoman Empire declares war on the Holy Russian Empire.

Mexican forces finally eject the Spanish from Mexico, ending the Mexican War with the successful creation of the Kingdom of Mexico.

Victor Ilyich Kasyanov, working in a field hospital in Russia during the Reclamation War discovers the importance of hygiene and antiseptics in medical treatments.

The Holy Russian Empire regains all of its losses to the Khanate of the Crimea.

The Pope Urban IX denounces the new Dutch Vrijdenkerij regime as unholy and unnatural, and calls for its overthrow.

Seeking an end to the religious unrest taking place across Italy, King Ferdinand V of Naples negotiates an agreement where the states of southern Italy all join together in one Kingdom, the Kingdom of Naples, with himself as the head of state, though a constitutional monarch.

The Mughal Empire attempts to impose controls of the world supply of silver to bolster its currency, but this attempt comes to nothing.

As time goes by Vrijdenkerij [Freethinker] ideas are adopted by a number of nations, though in different ways. Some nations state that one much renounce all religion and all ties to religion before being part of government. Others (such as the Netherlands) simply ban all public religious displays, and discourage the use of religion as a basis for government policy.

In some countries the renouncing of religion as a prerequisite for being part of government causes the more principled religious people to keep out of government, increasing corruption there. In some countries a 'shadow government' of religious types forms, which causes problems.

Some (but not all) Vrijdenkerij nations evolve into amoral ultra-capitalist societies. Others evolve atheist moralities. Some later become religious again. Others practise separation of church and state with varying degrees of strictness. Others again later attempt to eliminate religion altogether, seeing it as a source of strife and trouble, and a waste of resources that could be spent on (for example) providing help to people in this world. Thus they close churches and divert religious resources for 'better' things.

This has the effect of driving religion underground in those nations, resulting in such things as secret churches, priest holes and so on, and also drives the setting up of 'churches in exile' in other nations from which religion in the home country is directed. Some Vrijdenkerij nations establish a Religion Police to combat this.

[Even the most atheistic state does not suffer as much as states did under communism in the real world, as they are normally still staunch capitalists, but even so, they are hardly perfect.]

Despite its official philosophy, over time open religious displays become more and more tolerated in the Netherlands.


The Battle of Krivoy Rog ends effective Crimean resistance to the Holy Russian Empire. The Ottoman Empire begins to evacuate its forces from the Crimea by sea. As they go they are harassed by ships of the Russian Black Sea Fleet.

A coup in the Khanate of Tobyl, helped by agents from the Khanate of Atyrau, topples the Khan and replaces him with another, who quickly forges close political ties with the Khanate of Atyrau.

In North America, the religious violence in Canada and Louisiana finally ends. The primarily Catholic Louisiana remains loyal to the new Dictateur, while the Protestant Canada continues to be loyal to King Louis XVIII. There are significant migrations of people into and out of Canada and Louisiana as they find themselves no longer welcome in those countries.

Seeking an end to North African piracy, a combined force of European navies, with particular contributions from France, the Kingdom of Naples, the Duchy of Milan and the states of northern Italy, engage in a long campaign to wipe out North African piracy.

A Great Comet is observed between early September to December. This comet has two tails, the largest of which is about ten degrees long.


The Khanates of Atyrau and Tobyl merge into the Khanate of Atyrau and Tobyl under the leadership of Ubashi Khan.

The Khanate of the Crimea surrenders to the Holy Russian Empire and is absorbed into it.

New Chinese Emperor Daoguang, seeing Russian Orthodox Christians in China as a threat to the nation, moves to entirely remove or exterminate them.

Seeking to protect their miners and the people who support them from pirates and other threats, the Dakshina Nad lays claim to the entire island of Papua.

Spanish forces are ejected from more of South America as the new nations of Chile and La Plata [the area which in the real world makes up central Argentina] in the south of the continent are formed.

By a combination of diplomacy and force, and helped by the cooperation engendered by the campaign against north African piracy in the previous year, Duke Francis of Milan, aided by his brother, Admiral Leopold, who led the Milanese navy during the anti-pirate campaign, the Duchy of Milan forces the states of northern Italy into union with itself. They are supported in this by Pope Urban IX and the Papal States, . The Duchy of Milan restyles itself the Kingdom of Milan. The Italian peninsula is now divided between the two Kingdoms of Milan and Naples.

Russian gun-maker Venedikt Dyagilev builds the first rocket musket, a flintlock weapon in which a rocket-driven projectile is loaded into the musket on top of a normal charge of black powder. When the flintlock is fired, the black powder both launches the rocket and ignites its own internal charge of propellant, giving a projectile with very great range and accuracy. [These are very similar to the Voss Musket Rocket] Although expensive and somewhat unreliable these Dyagilev Guns, as they are known, soon become used by snipers and other elite forces.

The Mughal Empire begins moving away from a silver-backed currency in an attempt to save its economy from collapse due to the fall of silver prices around the world. However, despite its best efforts these attempts cause a major crisis in the Mughal economy, with widespread bankruptcy and unemployment, which spreads out from the Mughal Empire around the world, causing worldwide economic problems. Several of the Mughal Tayefe Karkhanas go out of business during this period, which quickly becomes known as the Noqre Bohrâm [Silver Crisis in Persian].

As time passes both conventional gunpowder-driven projectile weapons and rocket guns such as the Dyagilev Gun and its descendants become widely used around the world, with the latter finding wider use in rifles and the former more use in pistols. [This is because the need for a rocket projectile to accelerate makes them ineffective at short range, but very effective at long range.]

Over time the Mughal Empire and other nations of the world manage to stabilise their economies and largely resolve the Noqre Bohrâm [Silver Crisis]. However, the crisis has forced a levelling of the playing field between the Mughals and the rest of the world. As a consequence of the Noqre Bohrâm many nations move their economies away from a precious-metal-backed currency altogether.


The Holy Russian Empire demands the return of the areas it lost to the Triple Alliance in the Treaty of Warsaw that ended the War of the Russian Humiliation.

Sweden, Poland-Lithuania and Austria reject the Russian demands.

Chinese Russian Orthodox Christians, allied with other groups who have grievances against the Manchu Emperors of China, including Muslims, rise up and attempt to overthrow the Chinese government. Despite rumours of Russian involvement in this, the uprising grows and spreads across northern China; it is helped by the economic problems caused by the drop in world silver prices affecting the Chinese silver-backed currency. It becomes known as the Zhengjiaotu Rebellion [Zhengjiaotu is the Chinese term for an Orthodox Christian].

Seeking to end the unrest in its remaining colonies in South America while retaining control of them, Spain grants numerous concessions to them.

In South America tentative negotiations between Chaco and La Plata take place to explore the idea of the two nations merging into a single larger and stronger nation. However, political differences between the two nations prevent this idea from going any further.

With Spain pressured by France to restrict the freedom of former King Louis XVIII, the exiled French royal family travels to Canada via Scotland, where they are welcomed by the people there.

Despite the assistance of the Mughal Empire, the Holy Russian Empire conquers the Middle Horde of Kazakhs. [In the real world they did this by 1798.]

The Khanate of Atyrau and Tobyl invades the Khanate of Irtysh, where most of the populace welcome them as harbingers of Kalmyk unity and glory.

The Great Horde of Kazakhs defeat the forces of the Holy Russian Empire in a series of battles on the steppes, in which the weapons and tactics sold to them by the Mughal Empire are decisive. This ensures that they maintain their independence.


Russian forces cross the border into formerly-Russian territory in Europe, beginning what becomes known as the Second Russian War, or the Second Reclamation War. They advance quickly, aided by uprisings of the local Russian-descended inhabitants and often greeted as liberators.

The new Khanate of Atyrau, Tobyl and Irtysh renames itself the Great Khanate.

Russian forces reach the Baltic Sea.

Russian forces lay siege to occupied St Petersburg.

Huguenot Philibert Larbaud in French North America invents the mass production process [first developed at about this time in the real world]. This is soon adapted across the world. Thus what later becomes known as the Age of Gadgets ends.

The Sultan of Johor is overthrown by Wan Azizah Anwar Ibrahim, a charismatic new nationalist political leader who declares himself the new Sultan. He begins to institute a re-militarization of Johor, and a unification of the Sultanate into a single political unit.

The long-running border skirmishes between Xhosaland and the Luba and Lunda Empires are finally ended by the Treaty of Lourenço Marques, which defines the border between the three countries. However, it permanently sours relations between Xhosaland and the Luba and Lunda, and also between them and the Dutch, who support the Xhosa.

The various English colonies making up their territory in Central and northern South America are unified under a single colonial administration into a Dominion known as Mosquitia.

As time passes, France begins to suffer serious economic problems, which Le Dictateur cannot solve any more than the King could before him. These are exacerbated by numerous non-Catholic people who previously contributed to the economy departing from France during the Second Wars of Religion.

As the French economic crisis worsens, Le Dictateur and his Estates-General have no choice but to impose increasingly high taxes on the populace, or at least on the Third Estate, the peasants. Unrest begins to spread across the country.

The Mughal and Holy Russian Empires, both occupied elsewhere, observe the new Great Khanate with interest, but do not interfere as it so far appears to be a threat to neither of them.


The Russian military demonstrates the first guns firing explosive shells on a flat trajectory, greatly increasing their accuracy and destructive power. These were invented by Johorian [Sumatran] émigré Tarmizi Rajasa working in Moscow. They are quickly adopted by other nations around the world.

Russian forces cross the pre-War of the Russia Humiliation border into Poland-Lithuania, while other forces conduct probing raids into Swedish and Austrian territory, tying down forces which might assist the Poles. Numerous battles devastate the Polish and Lithuanian countryside

A series of earthquakes, aftershocks and tremors occur in the Mississippi Valley. These continue into 1812. The earthquakes reverse the course of the Mississippi River, and are the largest series of earthquakes known to have occurred in North America.

Comet Gwynedd [Flaugergues] appears between April 1811 and January 1812 and is visible to the unaided eye. This comet has two tails, one straight and one curved, one of which is some twenty-five degrees long.

At the Battle of Volkovisk in the Second Reclamation War, Polish-Lithuanian general Bronislaw Gumplowicz is the first person to make use of a tethered hot air balloon in war, using it to observe the battlefield below.

In Switzerland a coalition of its protestant cantons force through a number of reforms of the political system of the Confederacy of Switzerland. These introduce a confederacy-wide administration, a modern bureaucracy and a unified foreign policy. As part of this a new capital is declared, in Zurich.

The first public passenger-carrying railways begin operating in both India and Europe.

Amid rising religious violence, Serbia breaks away from the Ottoman Empire.

Amid rising public sentiment against the institution, the governments of England and Denmark ban slavery within the home countries, and give the Presidents of their colonial Dominions the option of abolishing it in them if they wish.

The use of tethered balloons as observation platforms is soon adopted by the Holy Russian Empire and by militaries around the world.

Railway networks begin spreading across Europe, India and their various colonies across the world.

As time goes by electric trolleybuses, trains and trams come to be used in and between cities, with steam and internal combustion engined ones being used elsewhere. Although electrical engines dominate transport on fixed routes, power sources independent of outside sources still have a good deal of use in other locations. [The earlier use of electrical engines means that nothing like the Stirling Engine is developed in this world.]

As India industrialises and its population grows, many of its sacred (and other) rivers begin to become polluted with both industrial and human waste. This is particularly the case during the dry season when the rivers are at their lowest and thus the pollution at its most concentrated.

Pollution also begins to become a problem elsewhere in the world.

As the numbers of slaves in Braseal increase, slaves begin to see that they have power from numbers alone. Slave unrest begins to spread across Braseal.


Russian officer Apollinary Aitmatov modifies a Ryll [Gatling] gun to use its own recoil to drive itself, producing the first machine gun [this occurred in 1881 in the real world]. This design is quickly adopted across the Holy Russian Empire where it devastates the armies of the Triple Alliance.

Charismatic Chinese Russian Orthodox Christian Teng Junhui, a recent convert, rises to the leadership of the Zhengjiaotu Rebellion. With his forceful personality in charge, the forces of the rebellion become more unified, and more effective against those of the Chinese central government.

A Polish-Lithuanian observation balloon becomes the first man-made flying machine to be shot down after it is hit by a Russian shell. All aboard are killed.

The Kingdom of Canada is declared, with the former French King Louis XVIII as its new King, Louis I.

Portugal attempts to take control of the Luba and Lunda Empires. Aided by guns and advisors from Oman and the Mughal Empire, Luba and Lunda are able to repel the Portuguese.

The Great Khanate becomes the first Central Asian state to begin to industrialise itself, rather than simply use the industrially-produced goods bought from or donated by foreigners.

The Triple Alliance quickly begin to adopt trenches and other tactics to help them against the Russian machine guns, but without machine guns of their own can do little to prevent the Russian advance.

The continuing Noqre Bohrâm [Silver Crisis in Persian] only exacerbates the problems of the Zhengjiaotu Rebellion in China. It also helps many nations which trade with China to make 'agreements' with various Chinese leaders, allowing them to extract as much money as possible from the country while it is in chaos.


The Triple Alliance acquires their own versions of the machine gun, but by the time they have enough of them to have an impact, the Russians have made massive advances.

Polish-Lithuanian negotiators meet with the Holy Russian Empire in an attempt to end the Second Reclamation War. However, the Poles are unwilling to meet the demands of the Russians, and the war continues.

Alauddin Bakar Al-Haj, a colleague of Sultan Abdul Jalil of Johor, proposes the concept of an Alam Melayu [Malay World] political movement, which would unify all Malay people everywhere and all of the Malay Archipelago into a single political entity superseding the current assorted Malay kingdoms. At any cost.

Croatia and Macedonia also break away from the Ottoman Empire.

A number of slave revolts occur across Braseal. They are brutally suppressed, but not before doing significant damage to the country.

Comet Yourcenar [Encke] reappears.

The Alam Melayu movement leads to similar ideas taking root in other parts of the world. A 'Celtic World' movement grows up in Scotland, Wales and Ireland, as well as others in Scandinavia, Germany under the name of the All-German Party, Italy and the Middle East.


Russian forces besiege Warsaw.

Polish-Lithuanian negotiators again meet with the Holy Russian Empire. This time they accept the Russian demands, signing the Second Treaty of Warsaw.

The Anglo-Danish Royal Navy launches the first ironclad warship, intended partly to counter the effectiveness of the new Russian guns.

Sultan Abdul Jalil of Johor repudiates the ideas of Alauddin Bakar Al-Haj. Alauddin Bakar Al-Haj goes into exile in Jawa [Java].

The first long-distance railway in the Dakshina Nad, linking Kanyakumari with the Maratha capital of Satara via the Pudhiya Kozhikode capital of Kozhikode and the Mysorean capital of Mysore, opens to the public along its entire length.

Mud-flows caused by the eruption of Mount Mayon in the Philippine Islands kill twelve hundred people.

A number of nations with Vrijdenkerij governments band together into a 'Freethought Alliance'.

The industrialisation of the Great Khanate begins to run into problems, as the setting up of industries is quickly seen to require that those involved in it give up their traditional nomadic lifestyle in favour of life at a fixed industrial location, something few are willing to do, while industrial work in them is considered to be below them. For this reason, the industry of the Great Khanate soon becomes manned by slave labour and other unfortunates, with free overseers, most of who spend only some of their time doing so, and the rest in their traditional lives.

As time goes by the atheist 'Freethought Alliance' evolves into a third lesser power bloc, occupying a third way independent of the great powers of the world. Some Vrijdenkerij nations are tolerant of all faiths, but want none of them. Others actively work against all religions.

Over time the Royal Universal Company comes to own all of the railways in England and Denmark, buying them up piecemeal. These are used to transport its own goods as well as people and the goods of others.

To help it make the most of this the company also enters the railway building and running business around the world.


The Second Reclamation War ends with the Russians reclaiming all of the territory they lost in the Russian war, as well as large areas of the former Third Polish-Lithuanian Republic, in particular all of the territory of Lithuania itself.

A massive eruption of the Tambora volcano in the east indies [Indonesia] kills ninety-two thousand people locally due to ash falls, tsunami, disease and starvation. It also causes climatic effects on a global scale, a leads to 1816 becoming known as the 'year without a summer'.

The French Navy launches its first ironclad warship, intended partly to counter the effectiveness of the new Russian guns.

The eruption of Mount Tambora utterly destroys the Sultanate of Tambora on the island of Sumbawa, a state known particularly for its honey, horses, sappan wood and sandalwood.

A conspiracy of Bugis and Minangkabaus leaders in Samudra [Sumatra], unhappy with the nationalist policies of Sultan Abdul Jalil of Johor, which they see as ultimately destroying them as a people, attempt to assassinate him. This fails.

Gold is discovered in the sparsely-populated northern Mexican region of California. As news of this spreads a gold rush begins, with hopeful prospectors travelling to California from around the world. [This occurred in 1848 in the real world.]

The Great Khanate invades its neighbours to the south, overrunning them one by one in a brilliant show of military skill and force. All of the new territories are incorporated into the Great Khanate, which by the end of this process covers most of the territory between the Great Horde of Kazakhs, the Mughal Empire, the Holy Russian Empire and China.

Inventor Frantisek Hrusinsky in the Kingdom of Bohemia invents the first means to permanently record images, creating what become known as svetlo-zaznam [light recordings, that is, photographs; this happened in the 1830s in the real world]. As time passes these soon become known as svetzam.

The Delhi Pantheon is completed and opened to worshippers of all faiths to use in parallel with one another. Although not massively crowded it nevertheless sees significant use down the years.

With the Second Reclamation War over, the Holy Russian Empire is faced with the problem of what to do with the large numbers of Triple Alliance colonists who have moved onto what was, and is now again, Russian land. They are offered the choice of converting to Russian Orthodoxy or being deported. Some take the former course. Some chose the latter. Many try to fight and are crushed. In the early parts of this resettlement they are indeed returned to their native nations, but later, as the resettlement process becomes more bitter, many are also transported to Siberia.

Throughout this period the Polish-Lithuanian Republic covertly funds smuggling and resistance movements in its former territories, particularly Lithuania itself, which was lost during the Second Reclamation War.

The eruption of Mount Tambora triggers the first serious study of vulcanology [this is some seventy years earlier than in the real world].

As the gold rush there progresses, the population of California grows dramatically, with a majority of the new population being non-Mexicans entering the region to seek their fortunes.

Unrest over the suppression of free trade by the monopoly of the Royal Universal Company and the oppression this involves grows and spreads in Nigritia.

Many refugees flee the invading Great Khanate forces into the surrounding nations.

The ruthlessness and brutality of the Great Khanates takeover of much of the rest of Central Asia soon leads to this period becoming known as the Harrowing of the Steppes.

Not wanting to be vulnerable to the Great Khanate, other Central Asian states attempt to adopt the Great Khanate model of industrialisation, with varying degrees of success, and differing methods of selecting those who oversee the industrial facilities. Again, the conservative nature of their societies limits what can be done. As industry grows, but the nomadic populations of the Khanates remain relatively low, more and more of their industry becomes run by slaves as well as operated by them.

A few members of the Central Asian Khanates give up their horses in favour of motor vehicles of various kinds, but most see no benefit to doing so.

Inspired by the Delhi Pantheon, as time goes by the government of many other cities whose populations follow a variety of religions construct their own equivalents of it.


After long negotiations, the Personal Union between the thrones of England and Denmark is expanded into a federation of the two nations. The Federation of England and Denmark is proclaimed. This has a new flag combining the flags of England and Denmark:

The new Anglo-Danish flag

The Mughal Navy launches the first ironclad warship, intended partly to counter the effectiveness of the new Russian guns, which are now finding use around the world.

In Europe the effects of the Tambora eruption are felt as huge storms, abnormal rainfall, floodings of the major rivers of Europe and frost in high summer occur across the continent. The appalling weather causes crop failures and widespread food shortages across the world.

With the eruption of the Tambora volcano also causing severe famine in some parts of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh people, via their Gurdwaras, provide the only source of food for many of the people in these areas. In recognition of the great service they have provided, Mughal Emperor Muhammed Akbar II personally donates money to the Gurdwaras, and establishes a law to ensure that this is done in perpetuity.

Romanian nationalists take advantage of the end of the Second Reclamation War and the effects of the Tambora eruption to secede from the Holy Roman Empire. The Holy Roman Empire can do little to stop them. [In this world the region of Romania is part of the Holy Roman Empire rather than the Ottoman Empire, as it was in the real world.]

The Dakshina Nad and the Mughal Empire offer help and assistance to the people affected by the Tambora eruption, providing food and materials to help them rebuild their lives. The sultanates of Jawa [Java], particularly the Mataram Sultanate, do likewise.

A reign of terror spreads across the Sultanate of Johor as Sultan Abdul Jalil attempts to root out everyone involved in the attempt on his life. He declares that all people of the Sultanate will be unified into a single culture, religion and nationality under himself. In this he is supported by most of the population, who are of the culture he espouses.

Instances of large-scale slaughter, the destruction of non-Malay cultures, large-scale forced conversion of non-Muslims to Islam, and the slaughter of those who will not convert begin to occur across the Sultanate of Johor.

The last of the Barbary Pirates are destroyed by a French, Neapolitan and Milanese fleet led by a number of French ironclads.

The French colony of Benin is west Africa is now considered to be sufficiently well-developed for it to be made administratively part of France, with the same status of as territories in European France itself.

The first chemical anaesthetics are used by Jesdaporn Kraibutr in Ayutthaya [as opposed to in the 1840s in the real world].

A slave revolt in the Great Horde of Kazakhs is brutally suppressed, but at the price of severely damaging their industrial base.

The first electrical air cooling machine is developed in Delhi. Because of the poor weather this year it has little initial success.

The need to increase food production to help cope with the effects of the Tambora eruption leads to changes and innovations in agricultural practises across the world.

Slave revolts in other Khanates in Central Asia also cause great problems for them, as the increased controls of the slave workers hinder development, while the reluctance of the khanate members themselves to change their way of life only compounds this.


After decades of decline, and with faith in the central government shattered by the result of the Second War of Reclamation, the Holy Roman Empire is officially dissolved. The new regime renames itself the Austrian Empire.

After the end of the Wars of Reclamation, the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Kazimir, declares the need to protect the Holy Russian Empire from unholy influences, and bring the light of Orthodox Truth to the world, no matter how hard or how costly this might be. He declares that this is the Revealed Destiny of the Holy Russian Empire.

French and Italian troops land in North Africa to end for all time the threat of piracy in the Mediterranean. The threat of war prevents the Ottoman Empire from interfering in this attempt.

As the privations and disruption of daily life caused by the eruption of Mount Tambora continue, ethnic and religious violence flares between Muslims, Christians and pagans on the island of Sulawesi. This causes great bloodshed and loss of life.

Unrest begins in California over attempts by the Mexican government to suppress non-Catholic beliefs and eject or limit numbers of the new settlers and gold miners, who they consider to be non-citizens.

A second wave of slave revolts occur across Braseal. As before they are brutally suppressed, but again not before doing significant damage.

Some Sumbawan expatriates, scattered across Asia and the world, return to Sumbawa and attempt to rebuild the Sultanate of Tambora with the assistance of the Mataram Sultanate and the other sultanates of Jawa [Java]. Others work to build up a new Sumbawan enclave elsewhere, away from the Tambora volcano.


As part of its Revealed Destiny, the Holy Russian Empire begins the forcible conversion of all non-Russian Orthodox Christians in the Empire, including Catholics, Protestants, Muslims, Jews, Buddhists and all others. Many who do not wish this flee the Empire. Some attempt to resist, and many are killed, particularly among the Russian Jewish population. As a means of 'protecting' the Russian people from unholy external influences, Russian troops close the borders of the Empire to most traffic, even attempting to do so in Siberia and furthest-flung Alyeska. Despite these efforts large numbers of non-Orthodox Russians flee the Holy Russian Empire.

The Holy Russian Empire again attempts to send Russian Orthodox missionaries to the islands of Yapon. Yapon again refuses them admission.

The process of vulcanising rubber is developed by Thomas Smith In New England. [As opposed to 1839 in the real world.]

The second railway in the Dakshina Nad, linking Kanyakumari with the city of Golconda via the Pudhiya Kozhikode capital of Kozhikode, the Thanjavur capital of the same name and the Poligar capital of Kadapa (Cuddapah) opens to the public along its entire length.

Covertly aided by the French government of Louisiana, the Mexican region of Tejas [Texas] begins campaigning for its independence, despite attempts by the Mexican government to suppress this. Significant numbers of Louisianan citizens also enter Tejas and settle there, many of them giving up on the way to California.

A pro-independence uprising by Muslim Uighur rebels hoping to take advantage of the ongoing Zhengjiaotu Rebellion begins in the Chinese region of Xinjiang.

A Great Comet is observed in July with a tail about seven degrees long.

The Holy Russian Empire begins offering people incentives to settle along their borders, and sometimes beyond them, to help defend and define them. This is particularly the case in Central Asia along the borders with the Khanates and China. In some places people take up these offers, and in others forcible resettlement is used.

The programme of forced conversion in the Holy Russian Empire becomes what is essentially genocide against all who are not of the Russian Orthodox Church.


Its economy continuing to be weakened by trade troubles and problems with internal unrest arising from a continuing lack of faith in the central government, the Austrian Empire has no choice but to finally accept the independence of Romania and the Kingdom of Bohemia, which has been the case in fact since 1816 and 1801 respectively.

The last of the North African cities surrenders to the combined French-Italian force, leaving all of North Africa outside the Ottoman Empire under their control.

French forces take control of the island of Malta, as well as Algeria in North Africa. Naples and Milan also take control of the regions of North Africa centred on Tripoli and Tunis respectively, which they name Tarabulus and Tunis.

Following a series of conferences on trade and cooperation between the nations around the Indian Ocean, the Mughal Empire, Dakshina Nad, Imamate of Oman and Persian Empire form the Arabian Council, an organisation intended to allow them to discuss and control their relationships by means other than war.

Following its defeat by the Russians, and hearted by the secession of Bohemia, the formerly-Ottoman regions of Bulgaria and Serbia break away from Constantinople and become independent states of their own.

A bad harvest causes hardship across France. With the people unable to pay their taxes to the government, even by force, the French economy collapses. Peasant mobs attack nobles and government figures across France.

Despite the best efforts of the French government and army to stop them, mobs take control of many of the major cities of France.

An attempt by Greek nationalists to secede from the Ottoman Empire is crushed with great loss of life.

A coalition of Californian settlers begins organising active and organised resistance to Mexican control of what they now see as their lands.

De Valdivia's [Tralles] Comet makes a bright appearance that lasts for several weeks and is visible with the unaided eye.

Seeking a new title without association of Ottoman rule, the Romanian leader styles himself Domnitor. The Bulgarian leader styles himself Hadjuk. The Serbian leader simply styles himself King.

As Pudhiya Kozhikode has become wealthier, and inflation of prices has occurred, more and more people in Pudhiya Kozhikode have become eligible to seats in the Kozhikode Assembly, to point that it has become almost too unwieldy to function. This is because eligibility is based on possession of an absolute amount of money.

1640 to 1669 | 1670 to 1699 | 1700 to 1729 | 1730 to 1759 | 1760 to 1789 | 1790 to 1819
1820 to 1849 | 1850 to 1879 | 1880 to 1909 | 1910 to 1939 | 1940 to 1969 | 1970 to 2000

The World in 2000 | Africa | Central America And The Caribbean | North America | South America | Antarctica
Central Asia | Eastern And South-Eastern Asia | South Asia | Europe | The Middle East | Oceania

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