The Taj Mahal, Copyright 2007 Gerald Brimacombe

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TIMELINE : 1910 TO 1939

The Taj Mahal, Copyright 2007 Gerald Brimacombe

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1640 to 1669 | 1670 to 1699 | 1700 to 1729 | 1730 to 1759 | 1760 to 1789 | 1790 to 1819
1820 to 1849 | 1850 to 1879 | 1880 to 1909 | 1910 to 1939 | 1940 to 1969 | 1970 to 2000


Documents released by the Holy Russian Empire prove that the Irtysh Revolution was backed by the Mughal Empire. Unrest in the Khanate of Irtysh is brutally suppressed by the new Khan.

The Daylight or Winter Comet appears. It has a brilliant tail fifty degrees long and is visible during the day.

A second comet appears in Mid-April to May with two tails, one thirty degrees long and one curved and ten degrees long.

Comet Halley reappears, and is very bright with a tail some one hundred degrees long.

Californian astronomer Ángel Ochoa discovers what proves to be a ninth planet, which is named Anytos [Pluto, discovered in 1930 in the real world].


The use of biological weapons and plagues in war is banned at a meeting of the Oikoumene Council. Some nations who are not members of the Council, such as the Holy Russian Empire, also sign this agreement.

Xhosaland, closely allied with Oranjestaat, changes from a confederation of tribal governments into a Sophocratic system, similar to that used in Oranjestaat and like it retaining significant power in their overall tribal leader, the uXhosa.

More than thirteen hundred people are killed by ask flows when Mount Taal in the Philippines erupts.

After a number of disagreements and disputes, Charcas leaves Le Pacte d'Amazone.

Comet Kalia [Brooks] appears with a bluish, straight tail thirty degrees long. It is visible to the unaided eye. At the same time Comet Crommelynck-Walschap [Beljawsky] appears with a yellowish tail some fifteen degrees long. It is also visible to the unaided eye at the same time as comet Kalia.


Two Anglo-Danish diplomats who were negotiating a military agreement with the Ashantee government in competition with the Mughal Empire are found dead in the Ashantee capital of Kumasi. Investigations by the Anglo-Danish President of neighbouring Guinea lead to the apprehension of a small group of the supposed-extinct Thuggees, who prove to be agents of the Mughal government.

The Estrada de Ferro Portuguesa de Congo [Portuguese Congo Railway] opens, linking Luba and Lunda to the Atlantic Ocean and so allowing much faster transportation of their mineral wealth to Europe.

There is a major eruption of Mount Katmai in Alyeska [Alaska]. However, as it takes place in an isolated area no-one is killed.

With the success of the Estrada de Ferro Portuguesa de Congo, suggestions for an extension of the railway to the Indian Ocean are proposed.


After a national referendum, the government of Zanj changes to a Sophocratic system.

The Mughal Empire makes a formal apology to the Anglo-Danish Empire, and pays reparations. The Anglo-Danish Empire gains the agreement with Ashantee.

Under the auspices of the Oikoumene Council, a programme to eliminate smallpox from the world begins.

Since this time conspiracies of Thuggee involvement in any mysterious death have become widespread.


After a series of border infractions, the Holy Russian Empire demands reparations from the Khanate of Atyrau. The Khan refuses these, and accuses the Russians of trumping up a war.

Disagreements over the fishing quotas agreed at the end of the Cod War, combined with a drop in catches, lead to shots being exchanged between the fishing fleets of Canada-Louisiana and the Dominion of New England. What becomes known as the Second Cod War begins.

Sporadic skirmishes at sea mark the progress of the Second Cod War.

The growth of the nations and colonies in the southern tip of South America inevitably brings increasing numbers of economic and political conflicts between them.


Mughal troops are invited into the Khanate of Atyrau. Despite tense confrontations across the Atyrau border, the Holy Russian Empire accepts token reparations and the situation calms.

Large oil fields are discovered off the Sultanate of Brunei.

The first regular television programmes begin to be broadcast in the South Indian state of Pudhiya Kozhikode [as opposed to 1936 in the real world].


The Khan of the Great Horde of Kazakhs is assassinated, and a bloody succession war begins.

The Holy Russian Empire attempts to merge the Holy Chinese Empire into Russia. Massive uprisings against this occur across the Holy Chinese Empire.

A number of sea battles in the north Atlantic destroy significant parts of the fishing fleets of Canada-Louisiana. In retaliation, Canada-Louisiana destroys much of the fishing fleet of the northern part of the Dominion of New England.

The Empress of Joseon [Korea] dies of old age, having been a puppet ruler since the Russian takeover of Joseon in 1894. With no other members of the Joseon imperial family in evidence, the Joseon throne is taken by the House of Romanov and Tsar Peter V.

Despite suppressing the unrest in China, there has been massive damage to the Holy Chinese Empire, and the Holy Russian Empire quietly drops the idea of its merging with them.


A number of inconclusive sea battles occur between the fleets of Canada-Louisiana and the Dominion of New England.

In the Philippines in the Dakshina Nad, Roman Catholic Filipino doctor Apolinario Nepomuceno, who has spent a long period working in the medical sections of a number of Sikh Gurdwaras, begins preaching a new religious philosophy which he names Los Estudiantes de la Cruz [the Students of the Cross]. This links the philosophies of Christianity and Sikhism into what he considers to be a unified whole. Its name combines the meaning of Sikh - student or disciple - with the Christian cross.

Over time the ideas of Los Estudiantes de la Cruz have gained a significant following in the Philippines and spread around the world. Although they have faced hostility from some Sikhs and Christians, the Estudiantes de la Cruz persist in their faith, especially among the nations of the Dharmic bloc.

The Second Cod War limps on with little for either side to gain any more.


In response to rising rates of religious conversion and violence arising from these conversions, Mughal Emperor Salim Jahangir II legalises conversion from faith to faith within the Mughal Empire, including out of Islam.

With the advancement and strengthening of their nations, at least partly due to their adoption of Sophocratic ideas (though none of them are actual Sophocracies), the Spanish-descended nations of Chile, La Plata and Chaco sign a mutual defence agreement, the Tucumán Pact, named after the location where this takes place, Tucumán [San Miguel de Tucumán], the capital city of Chaco.


The succession war in the Great Horde of Kazakhs ends with a new Muslim Khan taking the throne. In gratitude for the help of the Mughal Empire in achieving this he signs a number of lucrative trade agreements with the Mughal Empire.

The first successful supersonic aircraft is built by Poornachandra Hiremath in Mysore and flown by Nanajaraja Wodeyar, a Prince of Mysore [in the real world this occurred in 1947].

Construction of an extension of the Estrada de Ferro Portuguesa de Congo to link it to the Indian Ocean via Mozambique begins.

Mud flows form the eruption of Mount Kelut in Jawa [Java] kill more than five thousand people.


Russian Orthodox Christians in the east of the Khanate of Luntai [Urumqi] attempt to secede from the rest of the Khanate. A civil war begins.

Inventor Roderick Jardine in Scotia Australis modifies the design of the hot air havajahaz [airship] to produce a steam-driven airship which also uses steam as its lift gas. Despite some initial teething troubles, this proves a highly safe, economical and successful concept, and it begins replacing other types of airship around the world. [Steam has a lift per unit volume that is about 60% that of helium, and is vastly cheaper and easier to handle; see here here and here for more details.]

The Mughal Empire begins using SWEDS [radar] equipped havajahaz [airships] to patrol over and monitor the steppes of Central Asia. This idea is soon adopted elsewhere.

A powerful earthquake kills one hundred thousand people in Gansu, in the Holy Chinese Empire.

The Second Cod War ends with Canada-Louisiana and the Dominion of New England agreeing a return to the pre-war status quo.


The long-running coal mining in the vicinity of the Great Khanate capital of Qaraghandy causes massive subsidence, rendering the city largely uninhabitable. The Great Khanate has little choice but to begin moving it to another nearby location. [This is much as happened to the city in the real world, though the timing and details are different.] The cost of this drives the government of the Great Khanate into bankruptcy.

Continuing political problems in Poland lead to the fall of the government there. A new Polish government is constituted, forming the fifth Republic.


Unrest over the bankruptcy of the Great Khanate spreads through its population.

The extension of the Estrada de Ferro Portuguesa de Congo [Portuguese Congo Railway] to the Indian Ocean opens. There is now a continuous railway link across Africa, from the Atlantic coast of the Portuguese Congo to the Indian Ocean coast of Mozambique. Mineral exports from Luba and Lunda begin to flow to India via the new rail link.

The Estrada de Ferro Portuguesa de Congo soon becomes a major trade artery, being used by companies of all nations to ships goods more quickly than is possible by sea. The Portuguese government is soon making as much money from this as from the minerals it exports from Luba and Lunda via the same railway.


Within the Mughal Empire there are calls for the Mughal Empire to incorporate the Central Asian Khanates into itself, both for their own safety and for the safety of the Mughal Empire. In the Khanates there are riots and unrest in opposition to this idea.

A Sophocratic revolution begins in the Great Khanate, and quickly spreads across the khanate. A Second Great Khanate Civil War begins as the government and some of the population resist the revolutionaries. Government forces, almost as poor and impoverished as the rebels, are barely able to resist the rebels, and many join them rather than fight.

The Great Kanto Earthquake strikes Tokyo and Yokohama in Yapon [Japan], killing two hundred thousand people.

The Khan of the Great Khanate, and much of his government, flee the country as it becomes clear that the Sophocratic rebels will take control of the whole khanate very soon.

The new Sophocratic government of the Great Khanate begins cementing its control of the country.

The new government of the Great Khanate still has a Khan, and much the same governmental structure as before the revolution, but now its members are selected using Sophocratic principles.


Construction begins on a massive road and rail bridge linking the mainland of India to Sinhale, with a deep-water shipping channel cut under it.

After years of debate, the Oikoumene Council proposes that the world adopt a new, rational system of measurements to replace all of the different incompatible local systems used around the world [not unlike the Metric system of the real world]. This would help the nations of the world to cooperate and unify.

Despite the best efforts of the Oikoumene Council their new measurement system, which becomes known as the Oikoumene System, does not become widely adopted, and nations retain their traditional measurement systems.


Mughal Emperor Salim Jahangir II dies of old age. He is succeeded by his son, who becomes Emperor Sipir Shikoh II.

With the agreement of the other nations of East Africa, the Ottoman Empire begins construction of a railway down the East African coast intended to link with the Estrada de Ferro Portuguesa de Congo [Portuguese Congo Railway].

Rebels in the Khanate of Luntai [Urumqi], who are rumoured to be backed by the Holy Russian Empire, ask the Holy Russian Empire for assistance. Russian troops, conveniently positioned near the border, move to assist them. With this development, the Khan of Luntai appeals to the Mughal Empire for assistance. Mughal troops also begin to enter the country.

An attempted uprising in the north of the Great Khanate is crushed by the military of the Khanate.

An earthquake strikes Santa Barbara, California.


By now it is reasonably clear that the Holy Russian Empire is entering a period of expansionism, particularly along its borders with the Mughal Empire. In response both sides begin building up their militaries, and the propaganda machines of the different nations begin swinging into action too, preparing the countries for war should it come. As an additional counter to this the Mughal Empire begins funding research to help protect itself in the event of war. This includes various ideas from nuclear physics. [This is the start of research into nuclear weapons in this world.]

The first artificial satellite is launched by the government of California. [This took place in 1957 in the real world.]


Two hundred thousand people die when a powerful earthquake strikes Xining, in the Holy Chinese Empire.

Comet Jinyong [Skjellerup-Maristany], a yellow comet, appears between November and December and is visible in the Southern Hemisphere.

Scientists in the Ottoman Empire accidentally create the first nerve agent [nerve gas; this happened in 1936 in the real world, in Germany]. Despite attempts by the Ottoman government to conceal this discovery, information on the new poisons spread to the great powers of the world.

As different nations experiment with the new nerve agents, all are impressed at their deadliness. However, all are aware that others also know of them, and so all abide by the 1882 Oikoumene Council agreement banning the use of chemical weapons in war.


The first transistor is invented by Gennadiy Averchenko in Novo Albion [as opposed to 1947 in the real world].

The disease smallpox is declared to have been successfully eradicated from the world.


The Tucumán Pact demands the withdrawal of all European powers from the southern tip of South America, and the handing over of New Fife, Mapuche and Kingsland, their colonies there, to the Pact. The Pact considers this to be their rightful territory and the European powers outside interlopers. Scotland, France and England-Denmark reject these demands.

The first artificial satellite of the Earth is launched from the Maldives islands by the Dakshina Nad [this occurred in 1957 in the real world].

Artificial satellites soon begin to be used for many purposes.


Mughal and Russian troops exchange shots in the Khanate of Luntai [Urumqi]. Both empires begin to mobilise for all-out war. Only hasty diplomacy by the Oikoumene Council is able to avert this, and end the uprising in the Khanate of Luntai by allowing the secessionists to take part of the Khanate along the border with the Holy Chinese Empire.

Biologist Jean-Georges Mestrallet working in Canada-Louisiana elucidates the structure of DNA [as opposed to 1953 in the real world].

The Dutch colonies in Marege, Nova Holland and Van Diemens Land, sign treaties of mutual defence with both the Mughal Empire and Dakshina Nad.

Wu Ch'eng-fu, a diplomat from Ling China to the Dakshina Nad, publishes a new religious philosophy that links Daoism and Hinduism into a unified structure which its creator names the Xin Pu Dao [New Universal Path].

The government of Novo Albion, in collaboration with California, launches the first spy satellite, which they use to observe the Holy Russian Empire, the New Commonwealth, and other nations they consider to be a potential threat to themselves. [The first spy satellite was built in 1959 in the real world.]

In Pudhiya Dakshina Nad, native Maregian [aboriginal] oikologist [ecologist] Galarrwuy Noonuccal hypothesises that the living and nonliving parts of the Earth can be viewed as a single organism. This soon becomes known as the Puraanaa Prithvee Kalpanaa [Living Earth Hypothesis in Hindi; what is known in the real world as the Gaea hypothesis, which was put forward in the 1960s].

The East Africa Railway opens, linking the Estrada de Ferro Portuguesa de Congo [Portuguese Congo Railway] with the Mediterranean Sea. This soon becomes a major trade link.

Other nations quickly begin to develop and launch their own spy satellites.


One hundred years after it took control of Morocco, France purchases the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, incorporating them into French Morocco.

The Mughal Empire launches the first living thing, a rat, into space from a launch facility in the Thar desert [this occurred in 1957 in the real world, with a dog Laika].

The Holy Russian Empire launches its first artificial satellite from a launch facility near the Technical Monastery of Yakutsk.

An earthquake strikes Managua, Mosquitia [Nicaragua].

Several hundred people die when a powerful earthquake strikes Terre Henri [Napier, in New Zealand].

Brasealean climatologist Moysés do Prado, working on weather predictions, discovers that they are very sensitive to even small variations in the initial values used. He names this the Teoria do Ponto Inicial [Initial Point Theory in Portuguese; what is known in the real world as chaos theory, a term first coined in 1975 in the real world].

Over time Teoria do Ponto Inicial [Initial Point Theory] finds application in many areas [much like chaos theory in the real world].


The Tucumán Pact invades New Fife and Mapuche, pushing deep into them before the Scottish and French can react. What becomes known as the Patagonian War begins.

Seventy thousand people die in Gansu in the Holy Chinese Empire when an earthquake strikes the city.

French scientist Daniel Adorée invents the Source Lumineuse du Régiment [what is known in the real world as the laser, which was invented in 1960]. The name quickly becomes abbreviated to SOLUR.


The Tucumán Pact takes over New Fife. Scottish refugees flee into French Mapuche.

French reinforcements begin to arrive from Europe and elsewhere. With no immediate threat to their territory of Kingsland, the Anglo-Danish does not respond to the Tucumán Pact invasion beyond sending reinforcements to Kingsland. Their allies, the Portuguese, also move forces to the border between Braseal and the Tucumán Pact.


Franco-Scottish air attacks begin to harass the forces of the Tucumán Pact.

A combined Franco-Scottish army defeats the Tucumán Pact in a number of battles across the disputed region.

The Dakshina Nad launches the first human being, Mysorean Prince Vikramaditya Wodeyar, into space from its launch facility in the Maldives Islands. The vehicle orbits the Earth several times before contact is lost, and Prince Vikramaditya is assumed to die of asphyxiation soon after.

Widespread mourning occurs in the Dakshina Nad at the loss of Prince Vikramaditya Wodeyar.


A second attempt by the Kingdom of Mysore launches a new manned capsule into Earth orbit. This time its flight is fully successful, and its pilot, Azim Sontakke, returns to Earth safely, splashing down in the Indian Ocean. He is lauded as a hero in the Dakshina Nad and around the world. [In the real world the first such flight was in 1961.]

As the Patagonian War continues, Franco-Scottish forces push back the Tucumán Pact. However, the Tucumán Pact digs in and a stalemate begins.

An earthquake in Kwatta in the Mughal Empire [Quetta, Pakistan], kills fifty thousand people.


The Khanates of Atyrau and Tobyl sign defensive treaties with both the Mughal and Holy Russian Empires, to protect themselves from both empires.

The Mughal Empire successfully launches the first unmanned space probe to the Moon. It uses an ion drive for propulsion [in the real world these were first used on a mission in 1989].

The more advanced electrical engineering in this world means that ion drives are much more advanced, and more widely used, than they are in the real world. They become the primary form of propulsion for long-range space travel.


Technical Priest Varlam Kantemir becomes the first citizen of the Holy Russian Empire to successfully orbit the Earth and return safely. He is launched from a facility near the Technical Monastery of Yakutsk.

The Dakshina Nad launches the first communications satellite to geosynchronous orbit [this occurred in 1964 in the real world].

As time passes more and more satellites come to use the geosynchronous orbit position.


The Khanate of Kokand signs a defensive treaty with the Holy Russian Empire, to avoid takeover by the Mughal Empire.

The first North Sea oil fields are discovered.


An earthquake at Erzincan in Russian Anatolia [Turkey] kills more than twenty thousand people, both directly and indirectly.

1640 to 1669 | 1670 to 1699 | 1700 to 1729 | 1730 to 1759 | 1760 to 1789 | 1790 to 1819
1820 to 1849 | 1850 to 1879 | 1880 to 1909 | 1910 to 1939 | 1940 to 1969 | 1970 to 2000

The World in 2000 | Africa | Central America And The Caribbean | North America | South America | Antarctica
Central Asia | Eastern And South-Eastern Asia | South Asia | Europe | The Middle East | Oceania

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