The Taj Mahal, Copyright 2007 Gerald Brimacombe

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TIMELINE : 1940 TO 1969

The Taj Mahal, Copyright 2007 Gerald Brimacombe

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Negotiations under the auspices of the Oikoumene Council finally end the Patagonian War. The Tucumán Pact recognises the right of the European powers to their colonies in Patagonia, and withdraw to their pre-war borders, but do not have to pay any reparations. Neither side is entirely satisfied with this outcome.

The Dakshina Nad successfully soft-lands a probe on the Moon. [This occurred in 1966 in the real world.]


A massive road and rail bridge linking the mainland of India to Sinhale is finally completed across Rama's Bridge. In addition to the bridge it also has a deep-water shipping channel cut under it.

Comet Namaliu [De Kock-Parashevopoulos] appears. It is visible to the naked eye, and is mainly a Southern Hemisphere comet. It has a faint twenty degree long tail.

A second Dakshina Nad probe lands on the Moon. This time it successfully returns to the Earth, bringing with it a sample of the Lunar surface [this occurred in 1969 in the real world].


The Dakshina Nad launches what it intends to be a permanently manned space station into Earth orbit. This is known as the Mâligai Vânam [Sky Palace].

The Mughal Empire detonates the first atomic bomb in Yakharazi, the Mughal-controlled region of Antarctica. [Nuclear technology has developed somewhat more slowly here than in the real world as there has not been a large-scale war to drive it on. Thus it is rather later, compared to other technologies, than was the case in the real world.]

The government of the Holy Russian Empire quickly learns of this, and after consulting with the best minds of the Technical Monasteries soon sees that this puts them at a massive disadvantage. They panic somewhat. Seeing that they have little choice but to do so or have to submit to the Mughal Empire, the Holy Russian Empire begins preparing for war while using the Office Of Perception to initiate a massive intelligence drive to learn more about this new weapon before the Mughals gain an un-recoverable lead on them.

Agents of the Office Of Perception learn that the Mughals have developed their nuclear weapons programme at a single secret facility located in the Thar Desert. There is only one research facility for the sake of security, although copies of the records of this research are also kept elsewhere.

The Mughal intelligence services become aware of the Russian build-up, and go on alert.

In Sinhale, Buddhist philosopher Ratnasiri Dissanayake puts forward a highly militant thesis stating that the killing of all of the enemies of Buddhism, and of the correct form of Buddhism, including those who disagree with them, is perfectly acceptable as the Wheel of Life will see them to their proper place in the next life.


Despite its alert status, the Mughal government is slightly complacent in the aftermath of its successful nuclear test. Because of this the Holy Russian Empire is able to sneak agents and material into the Mughal Empire undetected.

The Holy Russian Empire triggers a series of terrorist attacks, including suicide bombings and chemical attacks, across the Mughal Empire. As part of this the Holy Russian Empire uses a new weapon, the electromagnetic bomb, designed to disable electronics with an electromagnetic pulse. Significant parts of its infrastructure are damaged, and the government and economy of the Mughal Empire reel from the damage they have taken.

Under cover of the confusion caused by these terrorist attacks, in a massive raid the Holy Russian Empire special forces storm the nuclear research base in the Thar Desert and after a short but brutal battle are able to audaciously kidnap some of the project scientists and their families, take many of their records, and destroy the research facility. In the process most of the base's facilities are both deliberately and accidentally destroyed, spreading serious radioactive contamination across the site and a large area around it [not unlike the Chernobyl incident of the real world], including much of Rajasthan and the cities of Amber and Jodhpur. Radioactive contamination also drifts south into the Dakshina Nad. The continuing confusion allows the Russian attackers to escape.

The forces of the Holy Russian Empire invade the Khanate of Luntai and the Great Khanate, while their forces also strike into the Mughal Empire through the Holy Chinese Empire.

As the Mughal Empire begins to recover from the attacks it has suffered, it quickly becomes clear who the perpetrator is. War is declared on the Holy Russian Empire. This quickly becomes known as the War of Justice in India and the Dharmic bloc, while it becomes known as the Russo-Mughal War elsewhere. Initially the Mughal Empire can only fight a defensive war as it gets back on its feet. However, the aims of the war are soon clarified, as to obtain retribution on and reparations from the Holy Russian Empire.

The Mughal Empire begins rebuilding its nuclear programme at a number of secret locations. However, the Mughal nuclear programme is almost destroyed by the Russian raid. They have lost important scientists, and with their families kidnapped the Russians can pressurise them into working for them. Their equipment is either destroyed or contaminated. They no longer have any working nuclear weapons. The entire programme is set back by years.

As the effects of the radioactive contamination from the Thar Desert attack on their nation become apparent the Dakshina Nad also declares war on the Holy Russian Empire.

The Mughal Empire invokes its treaties with other nations of the Dharmic Bloc to aid it in its war with the Holy Russian Empire. In consequence the Sarajevo Pact, the Kingdom of France, the New Commonwealth, Canada-Louisiana, Spain, Ling China, Abyssinia, the Ottoman Empire, Ayutthaya, Dai Ngu, Brunei, Sarekat and the Imamate of Oman also declare war on the Russians.

Likewise, the Anglo-Danish Empire, the Portuguese Empire, Mexico, Bulgaria and the Holy Chinese Empire declare war on the Mughal Empire and their allies.

Persia, Prussia, Oranjestaat, Zanj, Novo Albion, California, the Sultanate of Johor, the Sultanate of Sulu, Xhosaland, Ashantee, Bama and Bavaria remain neutral. Nova Holland and Van Diemens Land also declare their neutrality, but also their willingness to provide supplies and other resources to the anti-Russian combatants should they require them.

Nations around the world begin mobilising their armed forces.

As news of the sneak attack on the Mughal Empire races across the Empire and around the world, most cities where there is a significant Russian population suffer rioting, mob violence and lynchings of Russians, whether innocent or guilty. This is especially the case in the Mughal Empire, where the Russian Embassy in Delhi is burned to the ground and all of the staff killed. The Dakshina Nad also suffers serious anti-Russian violence. More extreme voices in the Mughal Empire call for a Jihad against Russia, but these calls are disregarded by the Mughal government.

The governments of the Dharmic Bloc, particularly the Sarajevo Pact, begin attempting to round up all those of Russian extraction, or with Russian connections, within their borders. This is partly for their own protection, but mainly in an attempt to stop the Holy Russian Empire repeating the mass terrorist strikes that caused so much damage to the Mughal Empire. Many innocent Russian expatriates suffer badly during this period.

Russian forces penetrate through the lightly-populated Khanate of Luntai and the Great Khanate and, along with the forces attacking from the Holy Chinese Empire, invade Mughal soil.

Many of the Uzbek people, who bear a centuries-long grudge against the Mughals, ally with the Russians against them.

The Holy Russian Empire begins using what it has taken from the Mughals to develop its own nuclear weapons programme, which can be done relatively quickly as they now know the route to success without having to explore all the possible side-branches of the research 'tree'.

Despite the declarations of war, the only active fighting remains between the Mughal and Holy Russian Empire. Along the other borders, militaries make ready on both sides, and an air of tension grows, but no fighting breaks out beyond occasional, mistaken, exchanges of fire.

All of the south-east Asian nations on the Dharmic side contribute to the War of Justice (the Russo-Mughal War) over its course, but only in a few cases is this in a decisive manner

There is intermittent fighting along the border between Zanj and the Portuguese Congo, Portuguese Mozambique and the Kingdom of Luba.


Russian forces invade the Mughal city of Tashkent, and besiege the city of Samarkand after failing to take it.

As a precaution, the Mughal Empire begins fortifying the passes through the Himalayan, Karakoram, Hindu Kush and Pamir mountains.

The Holy Russian Empire announces that it has acted to preserve peace, and to stop the Mughal Empire dominating the world through these new Devils Weapons that it has developed. It offers peace to the Mughal Empire, and a return to pre-war borders, if the Mughal Empire provably abandons all nuclear research, and a universal declaration against it is put before the Oikoumene Council.

The Mughal Empire contemptuously rejects this offer.

In the Holy Russian Empire large numbers of volunteers step forward to fight for their country. The other nations involved in the fighting also have a surge of volunteers, as well as calling up all of their military reserves. The Sarajevo Pact in particular has most of its population militarily trained due to the long hostility with the Holy Russian Empire.

Nominally-Chinese aircraft based in the Holy Chinese Empire attack into Ling China and the Mughal Empire.

The Dakshina Nad lands a two-man crew on the moon [as opposed to 1969 in the real world]. Mysorean Girish Narayana becomes the first person the walk on its surface. The Dakshina Nad claim the entire Moon for themselves, despite the protests of the other governments of the world.

Having undertaken a crash programme to rebuild its nuclear effort, the Mughal Empire detonates its second nuclear weapon, again in Yakharazi in Antarctica.

The first oral contraceptive pill is marketed in Poland. Its use, whether openly or in secret, quickly spreads around the world.

Buddhist philosopher Ratnasiri Dissanayake expands his thesis of 1942 to state that not only is the killing of the enemies of Buddhism acceptable, it is in fact obligatory, as by doing so they are in fact moving their enemies closer to true enlightenment, so they are doing them a favour.

Following the thesis of Ratnasiri Dissanayake, groups of militant One Truth Buddhists begin operating in Sinhale and elsewhere.


The Mughal Empire creates its first air-portable nuclear weapon.

Using a specially-modified supersonic vimana [aircraft] and with the permission of the Sarajevo Pact, the Mughal Empire attempts an air-delivered nuclear attack on Moscow from an airfield in the Ukraine in the Sarajevo Pact (as that is much closer to Moscow than the Mughal Empire itself). However, the air defences of the Holy Russian Empire prove to be too strong, and also include a new and unexpected element, something clearly put in place against a possible nuclear attack - manned surface to air missiles, actually small rocket-launched fighters, with a built-in proximity warhead. Because of this the Mughal aircraft is shot down, its bomb detonating (apparently to stop the Russians gaining possession of it) in an uninhabited region of Byelorussia, doing little direct damage but causing some radioactive contamination. The Holy Russian Empire hails Yuri Ukhtomsky, the pilot, as a (posthumous) hero.

The attempted nuclear air strike on Moscow is accompanied by a swathe of attacks on the Holy Russian Empire by the Sarajevo Pact, on the assumption that the Holy Russian Empire will attack them in any case due to their participation in the attack, so a pre-emptive strike is the best idea for them.

The Sarajevo Pact attacks do take some damage from the Russian air defences, but do manage to disrupt the transport networks of the western Holy Russian Empire, including railways and airports. This prevents the Holy Russian Empire from responding as fully as it might wish.

However, despite the disruption caused by the Sarajevo Pact attacks, the Holy Russian Empire retaliates against this attack, sending troops across the border into the Sarajevo Pact. As this occurs the active fighting of the war grows and spreads.

The Anglo-Danish Empire goes into a state of high alert, as do France and Scotland. Each side pays most attention to one another, rather than to the conflict in Eastern Europe.

All sides in the war begin a major use of spy satellites in an attempt to determine the intentions of the other side. To avoid this both sides are already using stealth, deception techniques and camouflage as best they can.

The military of the Holy Russian Empire is overwhelmed by the numbers of volunteers it is having. They begin having to turn people away because the Empire still needs people to run the industries, farm the land and perform other essential tasks.

Despite both sides having declared war and all sides being on alert, North America remains in a state of 'false war', with no actual hostilities taking place.

As the War of Justice (Russo-Mughal War) continues there is a build-up of early warning sites against first aircraft and later missiles of various kinds through the member nations of the two blocs. These provide early warning information to all of the nations of their respective blocs. [These are equivalent to the early warning system chains of the real world.]

Many nations around the world also begin to develop national infrastructure capable of resisting the effects of attacks using electromagnetic pulse bombs and nuclear weapons. [This includes hardened communications systems and the primitive beginnings of an internet.]


A nuclear attack on the Russian army by the Mughal Empire breaks the siege of Samarkand, and destroys much of the Russian army that was besieging the city. However, much of the city and the surrounding area are contaminated with radioactive fallout.

Rather to their surprise, the Mughal Empire and Dakshina Nad find that they have more in common than they had previously thought. Hasty negotiations lead to the signing of the Treaty of Melakka, forming what becomes known as the Indian Alliance against the Holy Russian Empire. As part of the treaty, the Moon, currently claimed in its entirety by the Dakshina Nad, is divided between the Mughal Empire, who take possession of the northern hemisphere, and the Dakshina Nad who retain possession of the southern.

Sarajevo Pact forces cross the border into the Holy Russian Empire, moving to take control of territory that was theirs for a time between the War of the Russian Humiliation and the Second War of Reclamation. Russian forces resist this invasion.

Mughal forces move to retake the city of Tashkent. Another nuclear weapon is used to break the Russian forces encamped there, though at the cost of a great deal of damage to and contamination of the city and surrounding land.

Sarajevo Pact forces also move into Bulgaria, both to prevent their being a thorn in their side, and also to liberate a nation that is still seen as part of the Sarajevo Pact.

Tensions along the Russian-Ottoman border, although high, do not explode into war there.

Holy Russian Empire propaganda begins being used to convince its citizens that those who work at home are as important as those at the front.

The Anglo-Danish Empire and the Holy Russian Empire begin strengthening all of their forces in Europe.

Supported by the Holy Russian Empire, the forces of the Holy Chinese Empire strike into Ling China.

Nova Hibernia is blockaded by the navies of the Dakshina Nad and France. The President of Nova Hibernia is fully aware that Nova Hibernia, as a relatively minor outpost of the Anglo-Danish Empire, will lose in any confrontation with the forces blockading it, especially now that Nova Hibernia is cut off from external supplies. Because of this he ignores orders from the Anglo-Danish government to attack French forces in France Australis and Terre Henri, instead attempting to keep Nova Hibernia neutral but intact.

Anglo-Danish forces from Guinea and Nigritia blockade the Mughal colony of Jangalarazi in West Africa, using the Portuguese colonies there as bases. Attempts by them in combination with Portuguese forces from the Congo to blockade the French colony of Benin are less successful, and after a number of sea battles the blockade of Benin is withdrawn.

The Anglo-Danish colony of Natal in the southern tip of Africa is blockaded by combined Mughal and French forces, as is the Portuguese colony of Mozambique, severing the links of the One Truth forces with the Indian Ocean. However, Mozambique, supplied from across Africa via the Estrada de Ferro Portuguesa de Congo [Portuguese Congo Railway] continues to be a thorn in the side of the Dharmic bloc.

The Holy Russian Empire begins to deploy new and deadly air-defence systems, including nuclear-armed anti-aircraft weapons and electromagnetic bombs, in the form of both artillery and unmanned and manned (suicide) rockets. This begins to make Russian airspace an incredibly hostile environment for attacking aircraft. Other nations soon begin to follow suit, although most do not go so far as to deploy martyrdom weapons.

As part of the Treaty of Melakka the values of the Mughal and Dakshina Nad rupees are fixed relative to one another, to encourage stability. The values of some of the other Asian currencies are also fixed to these currencies for the same reason.

As the war proceeds it quickly becomes clear that the battleships that form the main strength of most of the navies of the world are actually extremely vulnerable to air attacks [this not being discovered sooner arises from the lack of major wars in the first part of the twentieth century]. Many battleships are lost in the early stages of the War of Justice (Russo-Mughal War), and the navies of the world begin searching for a solution to this problem.

Naval air power begins to dominate the thinking of the navies of the world [much as it did during World War Two in the real world].


The Mughal Empire finally retakes the city of Tashkent from the Holy Russian Empire. However, there are now significant amounts of radioactive contamination in Central Asia.

With the help of coerced Mughal scientists the Holy Russian Empire detonates its first nuclear weapon at a site on the remote Arctic Lyakhovsky Islands, becoming the second nuclear power.

The Dakshina Nad takes control of the island of New Wight [Vanuatu] from the Anglo-Danish dominion of Nova Hibernia. At the same time France takes control of Easter Island [New Caledonia] from the Anglo-Danish dominion of Nova Hibernia.

Unrest spreads across Nova Hibernia at the decision of the President to disobey the Anglo-Danish government and stay out of the War.

A nuclear-armed Mughal vimana [aircraft] crashes while taking off from its home base in Afghanistan. It is never determined whether this is due to accident or sabotage, but regardless of its cause, radioactive contamination is spread over the airfield and many of the personnel there.

The Anglo-Danish government begins exhorting the people of Nova Hibernia to overthrow their President and replace him with someone who is not a traitor. As these exhortations spread across Nova Hibernia, unrest spreads with them.

The French, Scots and Sarajevo Pact judge that the additional danger from the build-up of the forces of the Anglo-Danish Empire and the Holy Russian Empire is becoming too great. To nip this threat in the bud they launch a pre-emptive strike. France and Scotland strike against England, while the Sarajevo Pact strikes against Denmark and the Holy Russian Empire. Full-scale war immediately breaks out in western Europe.

The Indian Alliance begins sending craft into space specifically to destroy enemy spy and other satellites. Some of these are manned, some are not.

Sabotage strikes across the Sarajevo Pact, while not as effective as they might be due to the long-running Sarajevo Pact paranoia regarding the possibility of such things, nonetheless cause some disruption to their war effort.

French and Anglo-Danish aircraft strike at each others countries across the English Channel, both sides causing significant problems for the other. These attacks continue essentially constantly.

The forces of the Anglo-Danish and Portuguese Empires attack the three French colonies in South America, France Antarctique, France Équinoxiale and Mapuche from their colonies of Kingsland, Guiana and Braseal, with the intention of taking control of as much of them as possible. Attacks are mounted from Kingsland into Mapuche, while Braseal attacks into France Antarctique and France Équinoxiale, and Guiana attacks into France Équinoxiale. French troops there Do their best to repel these attacks.

The nations of the Tucumán Pact, having little choice but to accept direction from the Anglo-Danish and Portuguese Empires, also attack Mapuche, and the Scottish colony of New Fife.

The nations of Le Pacte d'Amazone (the Amazon Pact) join the war on the French side, attacking into Guiana, Braseal and the nations of the Tucumán Pact. However, the weaker of the nations of Le Pacte d'Amazone, such as Casaquiarja, join the war in, at most, a nominal fashion.

Mughal Emperor Sipir Shikoh II dies of old age. He is succeeded by his son, who becomes Emperor Muhammed Jahangir.

Abyssinia begins to blockade Ogaden and Moqadisho, the Anglo-Danish and Portuguese enclaves within its territory on the Horn of Africa, cutting them off from the outside world.

Spain being on the side of France, Anglo-Danish forces from Gambia invade Sahara Espagnol (Spanish Sahara). They make great advances into the sparsely populated country.

Anglo-Danish and Portuguese forces use their holdings in Africa as springboards to attack the Indian Alliance and the colonies of its allies, particularly France.

The first microprocessor computer chip is developed by Konstantin Artzybasheff in California. It uses trinary logic. [This occurred in roughly 1970 in the real world.]

A Southern Comet appears, so named because it is only visible from the Southern Hemisphere. It has a tail some twenty-five degrees.

Many of the African colonies of the European powers are blockaded and invaded over this time, with the situation shifting rapidly as policies and dispositions of forces change.

As time passes many nations around the world come to introduce electromagnetic bombs into their arsenals, and they are used in a number of theatres of the war.


The Anglo-Danish Empire moves to blockade Scotland while at the same time Anglo-Danish forces strike into France, Scotland and the Sarajevo Pact, particularly Sweden. Air strikes on southern France from Portugal also occur. Spanish and French aircraft move to prevent this, and fighting breaks out along the Spain-Portugal border.

Russian forces repel the Sarajevo Pact invasion and begin to push back into the territory of the Sarajevo Pact itself.

The Anglo-Danish Empire detonates its first nuclear weapon at a test site in northern Greenland. They are now the third nuclear power.

A military uprising, with massive public support, overthrows the President of Nova Hibernia. He is captured by the leaders of the coup, and lynched by an angry mob in New Dublin, the capital city of Nova Hibernia. A new President, Orlando Grantham, is appointed from the leadership of the coup, with the approval of the Anglo-Danish government and a promise to obey orders from them.

The Anglo-Danish Empire begins a blockade of the island of French Hispaniola [Haiti and the Dominican Republic] in the Caribbean, while at the same time attempting to blockade the Atlantic coast of France and the Skagerrak and Kattegat between Denmark and Norway with the intention of severing all access to the Atlantic Ocean from the Baltic Sea.

The Holy Russian Empire begins attacking Indian Alliance satellites in orbit.

The Anglo-Danish invasion of Sweden pushes into the country, while Anglo-Danish forces continue attempting to seal the Skagerrak and Kattegat, the sea route connecting the North and Baltic seas. Some Holy Russian forces also attack into Sweden from the East.

Despite the best efforts of the defenders, the forces of the Tucumán Pact overrun New Fife.

The French colony of Mapuche falls to the combined forces of the Anglo-Danish Empire and the Tucumán Pact. However, France Antarctique and France Équinoxiale manage to hold out against the forces of the Anglo-Danish and Portuguese Empires.

The first successful kidney transplant is performed by doctors in Canada-Louisiana. [This occurred in 1954 in the real world.] Due to the limitations imposed by the continuing War of Justice (Russo-Mughal War), this does not gain a wide degree of application at this point.

An earthquake in Turkmenistan kills eighty seven thousand people and causes some disruption to all sides of the war in Central Asia.

The Eclipse Comet is discovered during a total solar eclipse. It has a curved tail about thirty degrees long and is visible with the unaided eye in the Southern Hemisphere.

Indian Alliance forces attack Russian military bases on the islands of Hawaii, rendering them useless.

Although the various Anglo-Danish blockades are somewhat successful, there are many battles involved, and many losses on both sides.

Indian Alliance attacks on Hawaii are repeated occasionally as rebuilding occurs there.

Numerous islands in the Pacific Ocean are fought over during the War of Justice (Russo-Mughal War), in conflicts between the Holy Russian Empire on one side and the Dakshina Nad and France on the other.

As the war drags on, some soldiers and military units, particularly those who are not Christians, begin to adopt pagan, Satanic and witchcraft-related symbols to mock and disturb their Holy Russian Empire opponents.


An accident at a Russian nuclear facility at a Technical Monastery near the Arctic town of Nighneyansk causes a reactor meltdown. Radioactive contamination spreads over a large area of northern Siberia. Despite this the Russian nuclear programme continues its research at Nighneyansk and other nuclear facilities at other Technical Monasteries elsewhere.

The Dakshina Nad detonates its first nuclear weapon at a test site in central Pudhiya Dakshina Nad [in Australia]. They thus become the fourth nuclear power.

As Orlando Grantham settles into his Presidency of Nova Hibernia, he is rapidly made aware of the true state of affairs in the Dominion, and comes to realise that the original President was actually correct to do what he did. He reveals this information to certain of his allies, and with their support keeps Nova Hibernia out of the War.

As news of the radioactive contamination arising from the Mughal nuclear weapons, and its effects, spreads around the world, the Oikoumene Council pleads with the Mughal and Holy Russian Empires to, in the name of humanity, stop using nuclear weapons.

After consideration, and under pressure from their own people, the Mughal government reluctantly agrees to use no more nuclear weapons. The Holy Russian Empire agrees to do likewise. Instead the Mughal Empire announces that it will defeat the Holy Russian Empire in a 'fair fight'.

The Mughal Empire and in particular the Dakshina Nad begin using their African colonies as submarine bases to defend the approaches to the Indian Ocean and to attack the forces of the nations of what has become known as the One Truth Alliance in the Atlantic Ocean. At the same time the One Truth Alliance begins doing the same in reverse.

After many battles, the forces of the Holy Chinese Empire push the Ling Chinese forces back so far that they can take over the Ling capital city of Xi'an. The Ling government and Royal Family flees to the city of Kunming. However, as far as the people of Ling China are concerned the Ling government retains the Mandate of Heaven.

The first shots are exchanged between Russian and Indian Alliance spacecraft in Earth orbit, to little effect.

Anglo-Danish forces push deep into northern Sweden, reaching the Baltic Sea and cutting Sweden off from the Holy Russian Empire, but are unable to take control of southern Sweden, which remains well-defended and supplied from the rest of the Sarajevo Pact.

The Fourth Anglo-Scottish War erupts over the rights to many of the North Sea oil fields.

An earthquake strikes Penitence, in the New Commonwealth [Olympia in Washington state of the USA].

Six thousand people die in an earthquake in New Granada [Ecuador].

The decision of the Mughal Empire to defeat the Holy Russian Empire in a 'fair fight' later proves to be something of a mistake...

As the War of Justice (Russo-Mughal War) proceeds troops from all of those on the Dharmic side, and many of their dependants, are posted to nations all across the Dharmic world. Although there are some problems with this, all sides have an interest in maintaining this cooperation, and in general it proves to increase tolerance and understanding of other cultures and groups within the Dharmic bloc.


In order to prevent the other side taking advantage of them as routes of attack, both the Mughal and Holy Russian Empires invade the Great Horde of Kazakhs and Khanate of Kokand. They are aided in this by Turkmen forces. Mughal forces also take territory in the Great Khanate and Khanate of Luntai, although the Holy Russian Empire already controls significant areas of these countries. Many of the settlements of Central Asia are damaged during the fighting that occurs. In all cases the low populations of the Khanates prevents them putting up significant resistance to the invaders, although guerrilla activity remains a persistent problem. The only major battles occur when the forces of the two empires meet.

With French forces on Hispaniola weakened by the continuing blockade, Anglo-Danish forces attempt to invade the island. However, the French defenders are very well dug in and are able to repel them.

Pro-War unrest across Nova Hibernia is suppressed by the Nova Hibernian military. Propaganda in support of the President also helps in this. It includes the release of some of the information on the true state of affairs in the Dominion, which helps to halt calls for violence.

The population of the Dakshina Nad rises to over five hundred million people. [This is possible because, without the disruptions of the fall of the Mughal Empire and the European takeover of the sub-continent, the Indian population has started at a higher level, and with India becoming a centre of industry and advancement, has been able to grow more quickly than in the real world.]

The first microprocessor-driven computers are linked into the hardened communications systems within various nations. Because of the network of communication these links bring into being, the term Lace is soon coined in the Anglo-Danish Empire to describe them, and spreads around the world. [This is the beginning of the internet of Gurkani Âlam.]

A vaccination against malaria is developed by an international team of doctors and scientists working in the Mughal Empire. [Still not done in the real world as of 2007.]

An earthquake strikes Assam, in the Mughal Empire, killing many people.

The Central Asian Khanates remain occupied territories for the rest of the war, though by whom changes from time to with its ebb and flow. All of the Khanates have resistance movements against their occupiers, though especially against the Russians, who try to convert them to Russian Orthodox Christianity, while the Mughals leave them their beliefs, whatever they may be. The Khanates also suffer great shifts of population as refugees flow to and fro.

With the chaos and confusion of the war, criminals of all kinds are able to take advantage of the situation and gain power and influence. The criminal groups known as Qazaqs are born during this time.

As time passes trade ties develop between Nova Hibernia and its neighbours, the Dakshina Nad and Nova Holland in particular. All of these links are very much independent of the 'official' links between the Anglo-Danish Empire and these nations.

All of the different Laces [internets] develop into different, separate systems with little cross-linking between them.

As the War of Justice (Russo-Mughal War) progresses, the military forces of the nations of the Indian Alliance begin to evolve (in an unplanned way) a pidgin language to allow communication between all those involved. A polyglot tongue mainly derived from Persian, Tamil and French roots, this soon becomes known as Petafre (from PErsian, TAmil and FREnch).


Both the Holy Russian and Mughal Empires demand that the Persian Empire opens it borders to each of them, but not the other, so that they can use the high-value industries of the Persian Empire for their own ends.

With its enforced neutrality (imposed after the War of Persian Betrayal) and limited military, Persia both cannot resist, but also cannot even attempt to prevent either side entering. To great unrest amongst the Persian people, Russian and Mughal forces enter the country. Despite Persia putting up rather more of a fight than the amount of weapons their neutrality in theory allows, they are crushed by the invaders. Significant areas of Persia are damaged in this fighting, as well as in that between Mughal (assisted by forces from their allies of Oman, Abyssinia and the Dakshina Nad) and Russian forces when they meet. The Persian royal family and most of the Foroutan Dynasty flees into the Ottoman Empire.

Anglo-Danish forces are repelled from the French island of Hispaniola.

Despite assurances by the Indian Alliance that it will be protected, with the invasion of Persia and the consequent threat to its headquarters in the Persian city of Shiraz, the Oikoumene Council begins searching for a new headquarters.

The Indian Alliance Mâligai Vânam [Sky Palace] space station begins to be used for anti-satellite operations, and also for spying.

To counter the Mâligai Vânam and the satellites the Indian Alliance is beginning to orbit in increasing numbers, the Holy Russian Empire begins firing nuclear weapons into space. Although crude and inaccurate, and not achieving orbit, the electromagnetic pulse effects from these prove devastating to the Indian Alliance satellites, and several Aasmaan Yatri [Sky Traveller; astronaut in Hindi] die as the Mâligai Vânam is disabled. However, the Russian attacks are very expensive, and not as effective as might be hoped, so the Holy Russian Empire abandons the idea after a few attempts.

New crew are launched to the Mâligai Vânam.

In the Dakshina Nad, Filipino engineer Virgilio Manglapus develops a way to use a solur [laser] to detect distant objects, inventing the Module de Balayage de Lumineuse du Régiment [what is known in the real world as lidar]. This quickly becomes abbreviated to the mobsolur.

The One Truth Alliance takes over the islands of New Shetland [Kerguelen] from Scotland and begins fortifying it for use against the Indian Alliance.

Nearly three thousand people are killed by a pyroclastic flow when the previously inactive volcano of Aurobindo [Mount Lamington] in Papua erupts.

Five hundred people are killed by ash flows from the eruption of Hibok-Hibok in the Philippines.

In Persia there is a great deal of fighting back and forth across the countryside, but little decisive progress for either side.

As time passes the Indian Alliance begins to obtain a clear advantage over the Holy Russian Empire in terms of anti-satellite capability, and the Holy Russian Empire begins to lose its foothold in space.


Working together on a joint project, France and Canada-Louisiana detonate their first nuclear weapon at a site in France Plus du Sud [Antarctica]. They are, jointly, the fifth nuclear power.

Persian guerrilla activity against the forces of the Mughal and Holy Russian Empire begins, with harsh consequences for the Persians. The Holy Russian Empire begins forcibly converting the Persian people under its control to Russian Orthodox Christianity, at the same time beginning to work to replace Persian culture with Russian. Large numbers of Persian refugees flee the country, in particular into the Ottoman Empire, the Mughal Empire and the Imamate of Oman.

The Indian Alliance and Sarajevo Pact also begin waging propaganda warfare, using small transistor radios dropped over Russia, along with leaflets and other materials. These have only a minimal effect.

The Indian Alliance invades and takes control of New Shetland [Kerguelen] from the One Truth Alliance.

The first industrial robot begins operation in Novo Albion [as opposed to 1973 in the real world].

The first Russian orbit-denial weapons are fielded. Simple but effective these consist of rockets loaded with small unguided, un-powered non-metallic projectiles (gravel, fundamentally) with the intention of rendering space near the Earth unusable due to the density of debris in it. This is cheaper, easier, longer lasting and can affect a larger volume than nuclear weapons.

The Mâligai Vânam [Sky Palace; the Indian Alliance space station] is holed by a piece of debris, probably of Russian origin, killing one of its crew.

The idea of a base on the moon is proposed to the Indian Alliance as a place the Holy Russian Empire cannot reach and from which they can be bombarded with impunity. However, the idea is dismissed due to its cost and difficulty.

The first torpedo using supercavitation to achieve ultra-high speeds underwater is deployed by the navy of the Anglo-Danish Empire [this is similar to the Russian VA-111 Shkval torpedo of the real world].

Ling China launches its first satellite into Earth orbit from a facility on the island of Hainan.

A powerful earthquake strikes Kamchatka, in the Far East of the Holy Russian Empire.

As the Holy Russian Empire continues to launch orbit-denial weapons into space, low Earth orbit becomes a more and more dangerous place to linger, although it can still be passed through with relative safety.


Despite having successfully pushed back the Holy Russian Empire on several fronts, and taken control of parts of Persia and Central Asia to help hold them back, the Mughal Empire begins to find itself limited in what it can do due to a shortage of military personnel.

The Fourth Anglo-Scottish War ends with Scotland having lost its rights to much of the North Sea oil fields.

After a long and politically-charged search, the Oikoumene Council finally locates a new headquarters, in Oranjeburg, the capital city of neutral Oranjestaat. It begins to move all of its operations there.

The Mâligai Vânam [Sky Palace] space station is moved to a higher and hopefully safer orbit.

The Holy Russian Empire begins launching orbit-denial weapons into geosynchronous orbit, damaging some of the satellites that use it.

A powerful earthquake destroys most of the island of Kefalonia, in the Ottoman Empire [Greece], killing hundreds of people and causing major damage on the islands of Zante and Lefkas.

Geosynchronous orbit also begins to become a rather dangerous place to stay for prolonged periods.


As it becomes clear that the war will not be ending any time soon, the Mughal Empire introduces conscription to boost their military forces in the hope that this will produce victory.

After a long stalemate Ling Chinese forces push back the forces of the Holy Chinese Empire.

As it becomes clear that they are losing the ability to compete with the Indian Alliance and its allies in terms of access to and the control of Earth orbit, the Holy Russian Empire begins constructing a new type of vessel in a last ditch attempt to reach and gain some control of space. This vessel is to be powered by nuclear pulse propulsion, using nuclear explosions for propulsion. [This is very similar to Project Orion of the real world.]

The Dakshina Nad launches the first nuclear-powered submarine, the 'Kanyakumari' [1954 in the real world]. This is a hunter-killer submarine, and soon proves the effectiveness of nuclear submarines in general.

The Anglo-Danish Empire attempts another invasion of the French island of Hispaniola [Haiti and the Dominican Republic]. Again they are repelled, although at the cost of the devastation of much of the island.

The Holy Russian Empire launches the first Korabl Leda [Ice Ship], a vast aircraft carrier built of reinforced ice, displacing some two million tons, into the northern Pacific. It takes up duties as a vast, slow, largely unsinkable, floating patrol base intended to maintain Russian control of the northern Pacific. [This is basically the same as the ship proposed but never built under Project Habakkuk of the real world.]

In addition to the Mughal Empire other nations around the world also begin introducing conscription, for much the same reasons. The Holy Russian Empire, which already has a huge volunteer military, does not, however. As time passes all sides build up large masses of trained troops.

As a consequence of this many nations suffer shortages of people needed to operate essential industries and other services. This results in changes in their conscription policies to ensure that the nation will not be too adversely affected by them. Over time these policies generally minimise problems with manpower in the combatant nations.

Despite initial thrusts and parries, the war in Europe settles into something resembling trench warfare. There is a great deal of fighting back and forth over the same stretch of land, but with little in the way of major territorial gains or losses. England, Denmark and France suffer mainly from air attacks, while the Holy Russian Empire and Sarajevo Pact have much more ground combat. All nations involved in the fighting have a great deal of air combat taking place, and air strikes against their cities, even those far from the front lines. Neutral nations also suffer accidental damage from time to time.

Occasional major offensives allow different sides to push the front line back and forth by significant distances, but not enough to affect the overall stalemate.

The war enters a largely quiet period as all sides work to consolidate. However, fighting does not entirely stop, with skirmishes and occasional battles taking place on the European and Central Asian fronts. [This is considered the end of the First Phase of the war.]

The Holy Russian Empire launches more Korabl Leda [Ice Ships] as time goes on, using them as mobile bases of operations in the northern Pacific and later also the northern Atlantic oceans.


Ling China re-takes its capital city of Xi'an from the Holy Chinese Empire.

Wanting to end the War of Justice (Russo-Mughal War) the Indian Alliance extends a peace offer to the Holy Russian Empire via the Oikoumene Council. This is refused.

The first reusable spacecraft is flown from the Maldives by the Dakshina Nad. This is a VTOL single-stage-to-orbit vehicle [much like the Delta Clipper of the real world]. With this the cost of space travel begins to fall, while its ease increases.

However, as the threat of the Holy Russian space-denial projectiles increases, the embryonic use of (expensive) reusable space vehicles begins to be scaled back in favour of cheaper, more expendable, single-use launchers. Research on reusable space vehicles continues, however.

The great use of air attacks drives the creation and development of efficient anti-aircraft weapons systems, including ones using long-duration very high altitude anti-aircraft havajahaz [airships] to provide early warning, patrol borders, and act as weapons platforms. Some these are solar powered.

Both sides constantly test the air defences of the other, with less and less effect as time goes on.

Another effect of this is to drive the development of electronic warfare and stealth technologies by all sides.

As the War of Justice (Russo-Mughal War) drags on, people around the begin referring to it as the Long War rather than by its official name, to the extent that even officially it begins to become referred to as the Long War.


An antibiotic-resistant form of tuberculosis mutates into a virulent plague which first appears in the region of Jalisco in Mexico and soon spreads from there around the world. Many die. The disease soon becomes known as the Jalisco Plague.

The first orbital bombardment system using kinetic projectiles to attack targets on the ground from space is deployed by the Indian Alliance. However, it is not used for fear of it causing a response the same as that caused by the use of nuclear weapons.

Ling China detonates its first nuclear weapon at a test site in the Pacific Ocean, becoming the sixth nuclear power.

Antibiotic-resistant diseases begin to occur with increasing frequency, although they only rarely cause epidemics.


As the Jalisco Plague spreads around the world, the effort expended on the Long War drops as nations do their best to cope with the plague instead.

As part of the attempts by the nations of the world to deal with the Jalisco Plague, the Oikoumene Council calls a summit meeting at which it attempts to bring about a negotiated end to the Long War. However, neither side is willing to compromise sufficiently for any agreement to be possible, and the negotiations quickly fail.

A Russian manned nuclear suicide bomber/missile [essentially a manned nuclear cruise missile] is able to reach the headquarters of the Sarajevo Pact armies, outside Warsaw, and destroy it with a small (tactical) nuclear attack. At the same time the secondary command centre of the Sarajevo Pact in the Ukraine is also destroyed and several other nuclear strikes against the assembled forces of the Indian Alliance, in Persia and the Central Asian Khanates cause great damage to the military of the Indian Alliance. Swathes of Poland, parts of the city of Warsaw, and areas of the Ukraine are contaminated by radioactivity. Other such bombers are intercepted by air defences and shot down, detonating over strategically-insignificant regions.

On this and other later occasions the Holy Russian Empire sends penal battalions across areas it has just bombed with nuclear weapons, to attack the enemy before they can recover even if they die in the process.

The first successful liver transplant is performed by doctors in California. [1967 in the real world.] Due to the limitations imposed by the continuing Long War, this does not gain a wide degree of application at this point.

Helped by the Jalisco Plague, Ling Chinese propaganda and many defections from the Holy Chinese Army, the forces of Ling China break those of the Holy Chinese Empire. In the ensuing rout many more Holy Chinese troops defect to Ling China, and others flee back into the Holy Chinese Empire.

Comet Bahdanovich [Arend-Roland] appears, with a tail thirty degrees long and an 'anti-tail' pointing sunward, which is about fifteen degrees long. It is visible to the unaided eye.

Comet Jahangir-Sen [Mrkos] is discovered. This has two tails, one very bright and curved with a length of some fifteen degrees. It too is visible with the unaided eye.

The new Russian attacks start a new phase of the Long War as large invasion forces push into the Sarajevo Pact and the regions controlled by the Indian Alliance.

By now both sides have much larger numbers of troops. Using these the Indian Alliance is able to push up through the Central Asian Khanates and into Russian territory, cutting off and encircling two major Russian army groups in the process. The land and peoples of the Khanates take more damage from this.


In the chaos following the nuclear strike outside Warsaw, the Polish government falls. A new Polish government is hastily constituted, forming the sixth Republic.

French forces begin massing along the English Channel and Atlantic coast for what appears to be a planned invasion of England; as part of this many English ports are attacked, and the French invade and take control of the Channel Islands. The Anglo-Danish Empire quickly moves its forces to counter this threat. Regardless of this, the French build-up continues.

At the same time, Sarajevo Pact forces mass along the Russian border.

A powerful earthquake in Alyeska [the Alaskan Panhandle] causes a landslide that triggers the largest-ever recorded water wave at Lituya Bay, Alyeska.

[The more advanced space technology of this world means that intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) are never developed as by the point they could be deployed, they can also be intercepted in space. Instead nuclear cruise missiles and torpedoes, either manned (in the Russian case) or unmanned are used.]


Revealing the apparent planning for attacks on England and Russia to be feints, French and Sarajevo Pact forces instead attack Denmark and Norway from Sweden and northern France, taking the Anglo-Danish Empire by surprise and making rapid progress against them. As part of this heavy bombing raids cause severe damage to Denmark.

This is helped by, in North America, the New Commonwealth defeating the Russian forces in Alyeska and taking control of a large strip of territory along their border. They are helped to do this thanks to assistance and training from the Indian Alliance.

At the same time the Sarajevo Pact mounts a number of large-scale strikes into the Holy Russian Empire which are intended to throw them into confusion and prevent them from intervening, with a fair degree of success.

As part of this Bohemia fields the first very long-range magnetic accelerator gun. It can attack targets more than two hundred miles away [in the real world these are only just being developed in 2007]. Because of their country of origin these quickly become known as Bohemians.

The Holy Russian Empire completes its nuclear pulse drive space vessel, the Archangel Mikhail [Archangel Michael], at a site close to the Technical Monastery near the Arctic town of Nighneyansk, where there was a reactor meltdown in 1949. With time and the Holy Russian government pressing them on, they launch after only minimal testing, carrying a fully armed orbital station with a mass of thousands of tons. Unfortunately, something goes wrong during launch, and the Archangel Mikhail crashes catastrophically, spreading radioactive contamination over a wide area of the Russian Arctic.

The Holy Chinese Empire bombards then attempts to invade the Ling Chinese island of Formosa [Taiwan], striking from Russian bases in southern Yapon [Japan] and from two Russian Korabl Leda [Ice Ships], while at the same time also striking across their land border into Ling China and the Mughal Empire. However, the Ling Chinese, with the aid of Dakshina Nad forces from the Philippines, are able to repulse the attacks, with great losses to the Holy Chinese Empire.

Other nations also begin to adopt magnetic accelerator gun systems, although due to their high power requirements they are mainly used in fixed installations and larger ships.

As members of the Russian Office of Assessment are called away to the war, it becomes weaker and more corrupt, leading to an increase in the smuggling of forbidden items and black market activity in the Holy Russian Empire.

Canada-Louisiana, being rather hemmed in by the Anglo-Danish and Holy Russian Empires to east and west respectively does not join the New Commonwealth in its war against the Holy Russian Empire. However, it does continue to sell to those it deems to be in its interests to do so.

Whether the failure of the Archangel Mikhail is due to an accident, sabotage, or other hostile action is never determined. The survivors of those responsible at Nighneyansk are sent to the katorga camps.

With the failure of the Archangel Mikhail the Holy Russian government gives up on space travel. Instead, new projects to deny space to others are initiated.


With covert support from the Anglo-Danish Empire and Portugal, an uprising intended to free North Africa from foreign control begins, with fighting directed against the French in Morocco and Algeria and against the Italians in Tunis and Tarabulus. This becomes known as the North African Uprising.

Although France is very much distracted by the North African Uprising, much of northern Norway has been lost to the Sarajevo Pact and its heartland of Denmark remains under very serious threat from the combined French and Sarajevo Pact attack, especially since the new Bohemian magnetic accelerator gun systems are being used to bombard Denmark, Norway and England. Because of this the Anglo-Danish Empire enters negotiations with them, through the Oikoumene Council, to exit the war. A cease-fire begins.

The Mughal Empire strikes north into Russian Central Asia in an attempt to cut the Holy Russian Empire in half, beginning by severing or taking control of the Trans-Imperial Railway.

Taking advantage of the disruption caused by the attack into Russian Central Asia, the New Commonwealth and Canada-Louisiana move forces into regions of Russia bordering themselves.

The Ottoman Empire attacks the Holy Russian Empire in Anatolia from the Holy Land, Cyprus and Greece with the intention of retaking Anatolia from Russia. However, their attacks are badly planned and organised, leading to a number of defeats.

The Holy Russian Empire launches a number of airborne attacks on the Ottoman Suez canals, but although some damage is caused the canals are not blocked.

Portugal formally gives up all claims to France Équinoxiale and France Antarctique.

The first successful heart transplant is performed by doctors in Canada-Louisiana [1967 in the real world]. Due to the limitations imposed by the continuing Long War, this does not gain a wide degree of application at this point.

The city of Agadir, in French Morocco, is almost completely destroyed by an earthquake that kills fifteen thousand people.

The most powerful earthquake ever recorded, the Great Chilean Earthquake, occurs. Tsunamis arising from it cause deaths as far away as Hawaii and Yapon [Japan].

As the Long War proceeds, progress in science and technology slows. This is due to a number of factors:

As part of this Tarot and other forms of divination and magic become something of a fad during this time.

Related to this, as the use of pagan, Satanic and witchcraft-related symbols by elements of the militaries of the Dharmic bloc becomes entrenched within them, and those who initiated their use retire, some newer members of those units begin taking their use seriously, initiating a revival in paganism, Satanism and witchcraft across the Dharmic bloc, not just in their militaries but in society as a whole. In some nations attempts to eliminate these practises only result in their being driven underground, and they persist to the present day.


After long negotiations, and despite the best efforts of representatives of the Holy Russian Empire to change their minds, the Anglo-Danish Empire withdraws from the Long War. The only serious effect of this is that the Anglo-Danish Empire loses northern Norway and also the islands of the Kattegat, which are incorporated into Sweden, but in return France withdraws from the War.

Despite heavy fighting the Russians manage to retain control of the Trans-Imperial railway, which also remains largely intact.

The forces of the New Commonwealth, confident from their earlier victories against the Russians and using training and equipment gained from the Indian Alliance during the Long War quickly overwhelms the Russian defenders and take control of swathes of lightly-populated Alyeska until they reach the coast of the Arctic Ocean. The forces of Canada-Louisiana also take control of significant parts of Russian Alyeska.

As it becomes clear who is behind the North African Uprising the Italian Kingdoms of Milan and Naples join the war on Dharmic side, wishing to enforce some defiance of and retribution against the Holy Russian Empire.

In Sinhale, militant One Truth Buddhists attempt a coup to overthrow the government and remove Sinhale from both the Dakshina Nad and the Long War. Members of the old government flee to mainland India.

Initially having a fair degree of support from the populace, the new government of Sinhale quickly begins putting their policies into practise, killing those of the wrong faith and those who disagree with them, 'knowing' that doing so is helping them advance to their next life and so that much closer to enlightenment.

The Holy Russian Empire launches the largest chemical rocket yet built, the Archangel Uriil [Uriel] class, which carries hundreds of tons of orbit denial projectiles into near-Earth space. [These rockets are similar to the real world Sea Dragon design put forward in the early 1960s for a heavy lift launcher, but which was never built.]

The Indian Alliance begins using electromagnetic catapults to assist in the launch of space vehicles.

Comet Huq [Wilson-Hubbard] is visible to the naked-eye.

More and more debris is inserted into near-Earth and other commonly-used orbits, including geosynchronous orbit, by Russian rockets. They maintain and expand this debris as the war continues.

As the threat of the Holy Russian space-denial projectiles increases, the use of (expensive) reusable space vehicles begins to be scaled back in favour of cheaper, more expendable, single-use launchers. As the debris clouds around the Earth expand, the Indian Alliance Mâligai Vânam [Sky Palace] space station moves further and further from the Earth for its own protection. At the same time it continues to be expanded and updated.

Also because of this the Indian Alliance is constantly launching spy and other satellites to replace those lost to the Russian orbital debris weapons. This forces them to become simpler and cheaper with time.

Other nations around the world are quick to copy the cheap and effective design of the Archangel Uriil class of rocket for their own needs.


Seeking to entice France to once more give its support to the Long War, the Mughal Empire offer them the northern part of their African territory of Ghobarazi, on the west coast of the southern tip of Africa. This offer is accepted, and with the signing of the Treaty of Paris this territory becomes the French territory of Mataman.

The first nuclear reactor for commercial electricity generation goes on line in Canada-Louisiana. [The lack of a need for massive new energy sources and better batteries and other associated technology has retarded commercial nuclear power and nuclear power technology in general relative to the real world.]

Russian forces finally halt and begin to push back the Mughal advance into Central Asia.

A programme to eradicate malaria from the world begins.

As the support for the new government of Sinhale haemorrhages, a massive popular uprising assisted by the rest of the Dakshina Nad overthrows the Sinhalese government. Many of those involved are killed, but by the time Sinhale returns to something resembling normality, a significant percentage of the population are dead.

The Dakshina Nad introduces the first ground effect military vehicle [based on the same principles as the Ekranoplan of the real world] for long range, high speed, military transportation and patrols. They are also intended as a counter to the ultra-high speed supercavitating torpedoes deployed by the Anglo-Danish Empire and others since 1952.

Comet Ekwensi [Seki-Lines] appears. It has a dense, bright tail some fifteen degrees long.

The Long War gradually turns into a stalemate. The ability of the Holy Russian Empire to strike beyond its borders by anything other than propaganda and terrorism is largely gone, apart from a few missile submarines. The Indian Alliance can stop any Russian excursions beyond the established front lines, but cannot penetrate deeply enough into the Holy Russian Empire to significantly harm it, near-Earth space is too dangerous for low-orbit satellites, and Russia is too large to consider invading.

The Indian Alliance would love to end the war, but the government of the Holy Russian Empire will not give up.

As time passes the general state of the war evolves into one where both sides settle into long periods with little movement and fighting, interrupted by brief forays when one side or the other develops a new weapon or tactic and uses it, following which both sides develop counters and the status quo resumes. The form and character of the war evolves and changes with time, but the war itself always continues. In parallel with this, the war becomes an institutionalised and accepted as part of life. A person going off to fight in the war becomes a rite of passage, and a normal part of growing up. [All of this is adapted from this post on the AlternateHistory.Com discussion forum.]

As the population and industry of Braseal continue to grow, unrest spreads across Braseal as its people come to consider that, given the pre-eminent position of Braseal in the Portuguese Empire, Braseal should be the seat of government. In addition, with the continuing Long War, the people of Braseal feel that they are being exploited by the incompetent far-away government in Lisbon.

The Holy Russian Empire and its allies begin expanding their already-existing funding of One Truth terrorist and anti-war groups around the world, to help them destabilise the Dharmic nations. The Indian Alliance and its allies do the same thing in reverse.

Ground effect aircraft begin to be used by many nations around the world, in their navies and also on land where conditions allow, such as the steppes of Central Asia.


France re-enters the Long War as a member of the Indian Alliance, although in such as a way that this does not conflict with its agreement with the Anglo-Danish Empire and so also return the Anglo-Danish Empire to the War.

As the Long War drags on and resources become increasingly scarce, the Mughal Empire begins to introduce rationing of the most essential goods.

To avoid problems similar to those from which it is now recovering recurring in the future, the restored government of Sinhale adopts a Vrijdenkerij [Freethinker] system there, eliminating religion from its government.

Having reached the limit of their supplies and manpower, the New Commonwealth begins to consolidate their gains, having cut Russian Alyeska in two, but leaving the Russians in control of an enclave in the east and of the islands of the Arctic Ocean. The New Commonwealth begins imposing their own Puritan form of Protestantism on the inhabitants of their new territories.

Engineer Tanguturi Sitaramaraju, working in the Poligar Coalition, develops a gun which fires shells of frozen carbon dioxide at high speed, intended to be used against space debris. When combined with a mobsolur [lidar] based guidance system to ensure that even small particles of space junk are detected and stopped, this proves to be the first effective way to reduce the risk to spacecraft from Russian debris, and so becomes widely adopted around the world.

Ash flows from the eruption of the Agung volcano in Bali in Sarekat [Indonesia] kill nearly twelve hundred people.

As time passes more and more rationing is introduced, and the Mughal Empire becomes increasingly austere as it shifts to what is effectively a Permanent Arms Economy.

Despite the continuing Long War and the economic problems it brings, the powers of the world have no desire to let go of their colonies, for fear of diminishing themselves relative to the other states of the world. However, to enable this, where necessary investments are made in the colonies, beginning the process of developing them to the point of economic self-sufficiency.


Russian-backed Cambodian uprisings begin to occur across southern Dai Ngu.

The cod fisheries off the east coast of North America collapse [analogous to what happened in the real world in 1990], effectively destroying the cod fishing industry in the region. Canada-Louisiana and the Dominion of New England blame one another for this.

As the Russian situation deteriorates, and it begins to appear that the Holy Russian Empire may be in danger, the Russians begin using small nuclear weapons and manned nuclear cruise missiles much more freely, destroying a number of armies, particularly of the Ottoman Empire in the middle east. They threaten worse if they are not left alone. The casualties they cause are large but not as great as in earlier nuclear attacks, as precautions against such attacks are now routinely taken. Neither side is crippled, but no-one wants nuclear warfare to go too far, so no more nuclear weapons are used. This period soon becomes known as the (Nuclear) Spasm.

With this forces on both side disengage and the Spasm ends, although no cease-fire is declared, and the Long War settles back into a stalemate.

Investigations in Sinhale prove that the coup of 1961 was funded by the Holy Russian Empire.

The Good Friday Earthquake, the most powerful earthquake in North American history, strikes Alyeska [Anchorage, Alaska], killing more than a hundred people. Rumours soon begin to circulate that this was the result of a top secret Indian Alliance weapon, and despite this rumour being widely denied and debunked, it continues to circulate to the present day.

Fear of nuclear weapons begins driving architectural styles to ones providing resistance to war damage, which mainly consists of blockhouses and bunkers, if, in many cases, ones disguised by various means. For example, in Delhi, much new building occurs in the vicinity of, and into, the Delhi Ridge.

As part of the Spasm, the Russians prove to have considered the threat of cruise missiles and orbital bombardment weapons and deploy nuclear-tipped anti-missile missiles, ad well as ones using a 'shotgun' approach consisting of clouds of high-speed inert debris.

Both sides soon begin using anti-missile and bombardment techniques against the spy and other satellites of the other side.


Taking advantage of popular unhappiness about the Long War, Russian-backed One Truth Muslim revolutionaries rise up and overthrow the Sultanate of Johor in a bloody military coup, killing of most of the Johor royal family in the process. The remainder of the Johor royal family flee into exile in Sarekat, Brunei and Ayutthaya. Several cities are destroyed in the course of the coup, and large numbers of citizens are killed.

Seeing the danger to Dai Ngu that Russian backing for the Cambodian people is, the Dai Ngu government attempts to suppress Cambodian political movements opposed to them. This fails.

The Holy Russian Empire begins firing large amounts of debris into low Earth orbit, and other valuable regions of space, in an attempt to deny it and its advantages to everyone.

Investigation of the poor performance of the Ottoman Empire forces by the Ottoman intelligence services discovers many nests of Russian spies at all levels of the military and government. Many of them are in place due to the serious corruption and bribery existing within the Sophocratic system of the Ottoman Empire.

As the accusations and recriminations over the collapse of the cod fisheries in the previous year escalate, Shots are fired across the Saint Lawrence River from New England into Canada-Louisiana. What becomes known as the Second Saint Lawrence War begins.

An earthquake strikes Vigilance, in the New Commonwealth [Seattle in Washington state of the USA]. Rumours circulate that this was the result of a Russian weapon system.

Comet Balagtas [Ikeya-Seki] is visible, to the naked eye and in daylight. It has a dense tail some thirty-five degrees in length and splits after perihelion.

The firing of debris into Earth orbit continues as satellites and other space facilities begin to be moved into higher orbits to avoid it.

At this point in the Long War conventional conflict dies down as the combatants shift into a more subtle phase of espionage, propaganda, assassination and sabotage (including bio-warfare) while all sides also work on building up their anti-missile defences.

Sporadic uprisings occurs across the world as both sides encourage, fund and supply arms and equipment to anti-government fringe groups among their enemies.

These campaigns have some success as it is now some time since the original massive sabotage and attacks by the Holy Russian Empire that began the Long War, and the original people involved have retired while their replacements do not have the same experience and are, in many places, rather complacent.

Note that although the war is considered to have distinct phases, at no point does fighting actually stop. Thus it is considered to be one long war rather than a number of separate wars.

As the Long War continues it becomes clearer and clearer that, although the Holy Russian Empire cannot be destroyed, it also cannot win the war. Despite its going against the overall policy of the Empire a number of generals and other high-ranking figures begin to form a Mir (Peace) faction within the Empire.

At the same time another faction begins to grow in the Holy Russian Empire, which soon becomes known as the Bozhestvennoe Soozhdeniye [Divine Judgement] faction. Particularly fanatical Russian Orthodox Christians, they consider that the best way to end the war is to destroy their enemies without consideration of the cost, for God will surely know His own and so judge everyone correctly. They gain little support.


Several political figures in the Mughal Empire and Dakshina Nad begin to campaign for the unification of the two nations into a single country, given the closeness that has developed during the course of the Long War. This becomes known as the Sangh [Union] movement.

Russian-backed saboteurs strike a nuclear power plant in Poland, causing a major release of radioactivity, with all of its consequent damage and disruption. A number of other sabotage plots are foiled, however, sometimes with great loss of life.

Cambodian unrest grows across Dai Ngu. Further attempts to suppress it largely fail, and in fact cause it to grow.

Saboteurs strike a major railway junction near Yekaterinburg in the Holy Russian Empire, causing a series of massive train crashes and, as a result of the spilled cargoes that were being carried, a massive explosion and chemical contamination incident at the same time.

A powerful earthquake strikes Tashkent, in the north of the Mughal Empire [Uzbekistan]. Rumours circulate that this was the result of a Russian weapon system, although this is immediately denied.

Wanting to end the Long War the Indian Alliance extends a second peace offer to the Holy Russian Empire via the Oikoumene Council. This is refused.

The first commercial high-speed train using magnetic levitation goes into operation between Delhi and Agra in the Mughal Empire. Due to the limitations imposed by the continuing Long War, this does not gain a wide degree of application at this point.

The scale of the corruption discovered within the Ottoman system makes it impossible to cover up, and there is a massive public outcry across the Ottoman Empire, which turns into unrest, and the occasional mutiny among the military.

Expendable, single-use space launches begin to use anti-debris guns for their own protection.

Despite its best efforts, the Sangh movement is never able to convince more than a tiny fraction of the Indian people that unifying the Mughal Empire and Dakshina Nad is the way forward for the Indian sub-continent.

Numerous sabotage and terrorism-related plots are foiled during this time, on both sides of the Long War, with heroism and loss of life among all of those involved.


The Johor Revolution finally ends with a victory for the revolutionaries. The new Johor Umma, a state run of strict Islamic lines, is declared.

Continuing threats from North Africa oblige France to withdraw from the Long War to concentrate on the North African War, despite protests from the Indian Alliance.

The Indian Alliance begins attempting to undermine the entire foundations of the Holy Russian Empire by encouraging the smuggling of illicit ideas and technology, in particular labour-saving and convenience devices, into the Holy Russian Empire and into the hands of the common people. The intention of this is that, exposed to these luxuries, which are normally considered part of the Church only, the Russian people will become restive as they desire more such things. The Holy Russian Empire cannot do the same in return as no similar weakness exists in the Dharmic bloc.

An Uzbek terrorist group manages to bomb the Mughal Durbar while it is in session, killing many of its members. Despite this Emperor Muhammed Jahangir survives, though he is injured, and the Mughal Empire continues to function. In response many instances of violence against those of Uzbek descent occur across the Mughal Empire.

As unrest within the Ottoman Empire grows, the Holy Russian Empire moves to take advantage of it. Seeking to avoid both a second Ottoman Revolution, and a defeat to the Russians, Sultan Suleyman IV intervenes directly to initiate the reform of the Ottoman system. As part of the reforms, two new offices of the Ottoman government are put in place, the Office of Impartiality and the Office of Balance, each intended to monitor the state and each other to avoid problems like this one recurring in the future. As the new Offices begin to do their work, both corruption and unrest begin to end.

Saboteurs strike a nuclear power station in Golconda in the Dakshina Nad, causing major contamination of the surrounding area. Other plots across the Indian Alliance at about the same time are foiled, sometimes with great loss of life.

The Second Saint Lawrence War ends after both sides desire to avoid escalation, and agree on a mutually acceptable solution.

The Dakshina Nad launches the first nuclear thermal rocket into space, making travel there much easier. For its own protection it is equipped with anti-debris guns.

With the Reforms of Suleyman, the Ottoman Empire begins to advance faster in terms of science and technology than it had been doing before.

As the Long War continues to drag on, the Holy Russian Empire begins to suffer a problem of defections from its military. Many members of parts of the military that have lots of contact with the outside world come to the conclusion that Russia is not acting in the best interests of its people in continuing the Long War. If nothing else they have seen people living the modern high-technology life and want to know why they cannot have such things for themselves. With little chance of changing the situation in Russia, many of these individuals vote with their feet and leave, normally into one of the neutral states of the world. Others begin smuggling high-technology materials into the Holy Russian Empire, more and more as the Long War proceeds, trying to raise their standard of living.

Simultaneously, many Russian soldiers become aware that most of those outside the Empire are not soulless, ungodly, unsaved monsters and spawns of Satan, but are instead people not unlike themselves. People who have significantly better lives than they themselves do. This does not help halt the defections, in fact they want much of the advantages technology could give them...

Because of these factors over the years numbers of Russian troops of all ranks defect to the Indian Alliance, sometimes individually and sometimes in large groups. Russian troops who do this are showing far more intelligence and initiative than the Russian church and nobility thought they were capable of.

Many defectors from the Holy Russian Empire, after an initial period of internment and interrogation, go on to make perfectly normal lives within the Mughal Empire or elsewhere in the world, although many do have significant troubles adjusting to them.

With the defection of so many troops, the Holy Russian Empire introduces Political Officers to keep the troops in line, and adhering to correct beliefs. This partly involves shielding the troops from contact with the outside world wherever they have it, and also investigating and interviewing those who return to ensure they will not break the isolation of the troops. Many soldiers vanish into the Katorga system as a result of this. Special 'Interface Units' consisting of highly trusted and indoctrinated soldiers are set up to handle contact with the outside world where this cannot be avoided. Propaganda is also used to paint all such unapproved activity as Ungodly in the extreme.

Despite this and the punishments that are administered, defection and smuggling continues.

Not many of these defectors agree to turn their coats and spy on the Holy Russian Empire, although a few do so. Some of these defectors are used as channels into the Holy Russian military, spying and acting as channels for spreading rumours that despite what they have been told the Holy Russian Empire may not be the best place in the world. That ending the War might be the best option for the Empire as a whole. Some defectors are able to extend Indian influence even higher up the chain of command than could be done from outside the system.

As a result of the attack on the Mughal Durbar and other similar activities elsewhere the nations of the world become more security-conscious and controlled as the Long War continues, with the secret police and intelligence services growing more and more powerful and influential.


The Indian Alliance agrees that the Holy Russian Empire must be forced to end the war, even if by a process of attrition, for the good of the Indian Alliance, and indeed the Holy Russian Empire and the world at large.

An attempted counter-revolution by elements of the Johor military, backed by several of the surviving members of the Johor Royal Family, and with help from the Indian Alliance, is crushed by the Johor Umma.

Taking advantage of this attempted counter-revolution, Ayutthaya seizes the city of Pulau Ujong [Singapore] and the parts of the southern Malay Peninsula controlled by Johor.

Saboteurs strike the water supplies of the cities of Moscow and St Petersburg in the Holy Russian Empire, contaminating them with a variety of toxins and diseases. However, although there is panic, rioting and looting in some places, and significant loss of life, the Holy Russian government is able to maintain control and deal with the attack.

As the Long War continues the nations making up the Sarajevo Pact bow to the necessities of the reality of the situation, and merge politically into a single government, with its capital city in Sarajevo.

Russian-backed saboteurs strike a chemical plant near Delhi in the Mughal Empire, causing many deaths. Despite their best efforts to avoid this some of the saboteurs are captured and after a summary trial executed by crushing by elephant. Despite the hatred of the saboteurs, the use of this brutal means of execution causes a great deal of public revulsion, so that it is not used again, though it remains on the statue books of the Mughal Empire.

Pro-Dharmic unrest begins to spread across the Kingdoms of Luba and Lunda.

An earthquake strikes Sicily, in the Kingdom of Naples [Italy].

Unfortunately the Indian Alliance plans to undermine the Holy Russian Empire by introducing high-technology items into it does not have great success, as the Russian people are, in general, quite well indoctrinated to consider technology outside the Holy Church as the work of the Devil. However, it does give the Indian Alliance some successes.


With the supply of some mineral resources beginning to become restricted as the easily-accessible reserves are used up, nations begin investigating underwater mining, and also mining in Antarctica.

The Johor Umma attempts to root out all of those involved in the counter-revolutionary movement, at any cost. A reign of terror begins.

With the pressures of the Long War growing, the government of Dai Ngu finally admits that it cannot suppress Cambodian culture and its people. The southern Cambodian region of Dai Ngu is granted partial devolution, with limited self-government, though it remains fully a part of Dai Ngu as a whole. With this concession, Cambodian unrest drops to almost nothing.

Saboteurs attempts to destroy the Kra Canal in Ayutthaya by detonating a ship carrying volatile chemicals which is passing through it. Although the canal is not destroyed, a major fire is caused which kills hundreds and closes the canal for some weeks.

The first genetically modified organism is produced by scientists working in Novo Albion [this occurred in 1973 in the real world].

Despite its being equipped with anti-debris guns, a Dakshina Nad nuclear thermal rocket is hit and destroyed by Russian anti-space-vehicle debris while in low Earth orbit. The rocket is destroyed, and the radioactive remains of its reactor core spread contamination across the southern Pacific Ocean. All nuclear rockets are grounded until their anti-debris protection can be upgraded.

The Kingdom of France launches the first Bohemian [magnetic accelerator gun] equipped nuclear submarine, the 'Paris', to be used for long-range bombardment of targets.

As time passes more and more nations begin mining underwater and in Antarctica for the minerals they need.

As sabotage and espionage continues, many governments begin to use new surveillance technology and new anti-terrorism laws to monitor and control the populace and their movements, financial transactions, Lace [internet] use and other activities. Voices raised in protest at these dictatorial measures are ignored or drowned out by patriotic voices. [This is somewhat analogous to the War on Terror in the real world.]

1640 to 1669 | 1670 to 1699 | 1700 to 1729 | 1730 to 1759 | 1760 to 1789 | 1790 to 1819
1820 to 1849 | 1850 to 1879 | 1880 to 1909 | 1910 to 1939 | 1940 to 1969 | 1970 to 2000

The World in 2000 | Africa | Central America And The Caribbean | North America | South America | Antarctica
Central Asia | Eastern And South-Eastern Asia | South Asia | Europe | The Middle East | Oceania

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